By: D.K Choudhary
(1) Chalukyas (Karnataka rulers), can be classified into three eras – early western era (6th-8th century), later western era (7th-12th century), eastern chalukya era (7th-12th century)
(2) Vikramaditya II (733-745) defeated the Nandivarma II (Pallava king) to takeover the major portion of the Pallava kingdom.
(3) The Cholas (9th To 13th century) dynasty was popular dynasties of south India, ruled over Tamil Nadu to Karnataka some area covered.
(4) The Palas Empire (8th To 11th Century) was founded by Gopala in 750 AD.
(5) In the first battle fought at Tarain in AD 1191 between Prithviraj and Muhammad Ghori. The Second Battle of Tarain fought in AD 1192.
(6) After Tarain battle fought done Muhammad Ghori returned to Ghazni and handover affairs of India to his trusted slave General Qutbuddin Aibak.
(7) Qutbuddin Aibak was the first Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. He was a Turkish slave by origin. India capital was Lahore at his time.
(8) Shamsuddin Illtutmish (1210-36) made Delhi the capital in place of Lahore.
(9) Shamsuddin Illtutmish completed the construction of Qutub Minar which was started by Qutbuddin Aibak.
(10) Razia Sultana (1236-40) was the daughter of Illtutmish and got first and only Muslim lady who ever ruled over the India after Shamsuddin Illtutmish.
(11) Chandragupta defeated Seleucus Nikator in 305 BC, who surrendered his big territory.
(12) Bindusara was son of Chandragupta Maurya and extended the kingdom further.
(13) Asoka fought the Great Kalinga war in 261 BC.
(14) The great Buddhist Stupa (at Bharhut in Madhya Pradesh) was built during the reign of Sungas.
(15) The most famous Saka ruler in India was Rudradaman (130 AD – 150 AD) famous for his military conquests and his public works.
(16) The empire of Kanshika was spread over the five countries i.e. Russia, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India and his capital was the Peshawar.
(17) Last Kushan ruler was the Vasudeva I.
(18) Samudragupta (335 – 380 A.D.) was the greatest king of Gupta dynasty and he is also known as Napoleon of India described by ‘V. A. Smith’.
(19) Chandragupta II known as ‘Vikramaditya’ (380-414 A.D.) issued the silver coins in the memory of victory over Sakas.
(20) Skandagupta : 455 – 467 AD was the last great ruler of the Gupta dynasty.
(21) Bahram Shah (1240-42) was third son of Iltutamish‘s was killed by a Turkish nobles.
(22) Allauddin Masud Shah (1242-46) was son of the Ruknuddin Feroz.
(23) Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-87) took up the title of ‘Zil-i-Ilahi’ known as ‘Shadow of God’.
(24) Allauddin Khalji was a Turkish Sultan of Delhi. He was the governor of Kara during the reign of Jallauddin Khalji.
(25) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq of Qaurana tribe was the founder of Tughlaq dynasty.
(26) Muhammad bin Tughluq Mohammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-51) made five experiments like; increased the rate of taxation, Transfer of Capital from Delhi to Devagiri, Introduction of Token Currency, Proposed Khurasan Expedition and Qarachil Expedition.
(27) Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351-88) established a hospital at Delhi, described as Dar-ul-Shifa.
(28) Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517) was the son of Bahlol Lodhi (founded the Lodhi dynasty).
(29) Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-26) was the last king of the Lodhi dynasty and the last Sultan of Delhi.
(30) Foundation of the Mughal rule in the India was laid by Babur in 1526 after defeted the Ibrahim Lodhi.
(31) Rana Sanga of Mewar at Khanwa was defeated by Babur in 1527.
(32) Shah Jahan real name was Khurram, built the Taj Mahal at Agra in 1632-53 to perpetuate his wife Mumtaj Mahal memory.
(33) Aurangzeb re-imposed of Jaziya tax on peoples in 1679.
(34) Shivaji (1627-80) was the Marathas and son of Shahji and Jijabai.
(35) In 1530 the Nino da Cunha (1529-38) transferred his capital from Cochin to Goa.
(36) The first Englishman who arrived in India was John Mildenhall to the purpose of trade with Indian merchants in 1599.
(37) In India first French factory was established in 1664 at Surat by Francois Caron.
(38) By the Regulating Act – 1773, Supreme Court Established in Calcutta.
(39) Pitts Act of 1784 gave a measure of control over the company‘s affairs to the British Government.
(40) The Revolt of 1857 known as First war of independence against British administration in India but not fully succeed and lost many lives.
(41) By the Government of India Act, 1858 a post of Secretary of State (a member of the British cabinet) was created for India.
(42) Mangal Pandey known as India great freedom fighter was part of the 34th Bengal Native Infantry.
(43) Indian National Congress (INC) took the fist Swadeshi call at the Banaras Session in1905, presided over by Gopal Krishna Gokhale ji.
(44) Dada Bhai Naoroji called for ‘Swaraj‘ as the goal of India people at Calcutta in December 1906.
(45) Mahatma Gandhi’s first Satyagraha was the Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 called as powerful tool against British Government in India.
(46) Against to the Simon Commission (1927) Lala Lajpat Rai ji was beaten in a lathi-charge and died in 1928.
(47) First Round Table conference held in November 12, 1930 was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians.
(48) Government of India act (1935) was passed when Lord Willingdon (1931-1936).
(49) British government passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in July 4, 1947.
(50) There were 562 small and big Princely States in India at the time of independence.