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Important ACT/ Committe

List of Acts of the Parliament of India

Category:Acts of the Parliament of India

Number of Acts enacted by year
Year No.
1851 16
1852 35
1853 21
1854  
1855  
1856  
1857  
1858  
1859  

This is a chronological, but incomplete list of Acts passed by the Imperial Legislative Council between 1861 and 1947, the Constituent Assembly of India between 1947 and 1949, the Provisional Parliament between 1949 and 1952, and the Parliament of India since 1952.

Contents

  • 11836–1850
  • 21851–1875
  • 31876–1900
  • 41901–1925
  • 51926–1950
  • 61951–1975
  • 71976–2000
  • 82001 – 2010
  • 92011 – present

1836–1850

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Bengal Indigo Contracts Act 1836 10
The Bengal Districts Act, 1836 1836 21
Madras Public Property Malversation Act 1837 36
The Bengal Bonded Warehouse Association Act, 1838 1838 5
The Coasting Vessels Act, 1838 1838 19
Madras Rent and Revenue Sales Act 1839 7
Indian Registration of Ships Act, 1841 1841 10
Bengal Land Revenue Sales Act 1841 12
Revenue, Bombay 1842 13
Revenue Commissioners, Bombay 1842 17
Indian Slavery (Abolition) Act 1843  
Sales of land for Revenue Arrears 1845 1
Boundary-marks, Bombay 1846 3
Boundaries 1847 1
Bengal Alluvion and Diluvion Act 1847 9
Bengal Land Holders’ Attendance Act 1848 20
Madras Revenue Commissioner Act 1849 10
Indian Registration of Ships Act (1841) Amendment Act, 1850 1850 11
Public Accountants’ Defaults Act, 1850 1850 12
Judicial Officers Protection Act, 1850 1850 18
Apprentices’ Act, 1850 1850 19
Caste Disabilities Removal Act, 1850 1850 21
Calcutta Land-revenue Act 1850 23
Forfeited Deposits Act, 1850 1850 25
Improvements in Towns 1850 26
Public Servants Inquiries ) Act, 1850 1850 37

1851–1875

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Indian Tolls Act 1851 8
Madras City Land Revenue Act 1851 12
Sheriffs’ Fees Act 1852 8
Bombay Rent-free Estates Act 1852 11
Rent Recovery Act 1853 6
Shore Nuisances (Bombay and Kolaba) Act 1853 11
Bengal Bonded Warehouse Association Act 1854 5
Police, Agra 1854 16
Legal Representatives’ Suits Act 1855 12
Fatal Accidents Act 1855 13
Usury Laws Repeal Act 1855 28
Bengal Embankment Act 1855 32
Sonthal Parganas Act 1855 37
Indian Bills of Lading Act 1856 9
Hindu Widows’ Remarriage Act 1856  
Calcutta Land-revenue Act 1856 18
Bengal Chaukidari Act 1856 20
Tobacco Duty (Town of Bombay) Act 1857 4
Oriental Gas Company 1857 5
Madras Uncovenated Officers’ Act 1857 7
Sonthal Parganas Act 1857 10
Howrah Offences Act 1857 21
Madras Compulsory Labour Act 1858 1
Bengal Ghatwali Lands Act 1859 5
Bengal Rent Act 1859 10
Bengal Land Revenue Sales Act 1859 11
Calcutta Pilots Act 1859 12
Madras District Police Act 1859 24
Societies’ Registration Act 1860 21
Indian Penal Code 1860 45
Indian Police Act 1861 5
Stage-Carriages Act 1861 16
Government Seal Act 1862 3
Excise (Spirits) Act 1863 16
Partition of Revenue-paying Estates 1863 19
Religious Endowments Act 1863 20
Waste-Lands (Claims) Act 1863 23
Indian Tolls Act 1864 15
Carriers Act 1865 3
Converts’ Marriage Dissolution Act 1866 21
Oudh Sub-settlement Act 1866 26
Ganges Tolls 1867 1
Public Gambling Act 1867 3
Oriental Gas Company 1867 11
Sarais Act 1867 22
Press and Registration of Books Act 1867 25
Oudh Estates Act 1869 1
Indian Divorce Act 1869 4
Bombay Civil Courts Act 1869 14
Court-fees Act 1870 7
Oudh Taluqdars’ Relief Act 1870 24
Cattle-trespass Act 1871 1
Coroners Act 1871 4
Dehra Dun 1871 21
Pensions Act 1871 23
Indian Evidence Act 1872 1
Punjab Laws Act 1872 4
Indian Contract Act, 1872 1872 9
Indian Christian Marriage Act 1872 15
Madras Civil Courts Act 1873 3
Government Savings Banks Act 1873 5
Northern India Canal and Drainage Act 1873 8
North-Eastern Provinces Village and Road Police Act 1873 16
Married Women’s Property Act 1874 3
Foreign Recruiting Act 1874 4
Laws Local Extent Act 1874 15
Majority Act 1875 9
Indian Law Reports Act 1875 18
Central Provinces Laws Act 1875 20

1876–1900

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Chota Nagpur Encumbered Estates Act 1876 6
Bombay Revenue Jurisdiction Act 1876 10
Bombay Municipal Debentures Act 1876 15
Oudh Laws Act 1876 18
Dramatic Performances Act 1876 19
Broach and Kaira Incumbered Estates Act 1878 6
Northern India Ferries Act 1878 17
Elephants’ Preservation Act 1879 6
Hackney-carriage Act 1879 14
Dekkhan Agriculturists Relief Act 1879 17
Legal Practitioners Act 1879 18
Raipur and Khattra Laws Act 1879 19
Religious Societies Act 1880 1
Kazis Act 1880 12
Municipal Taxation Act 1881 11
Fort William Act 1881 13
Obstructions in Fairways Act 1881 16
Central Provinces Land-revenue Act 1881 18
Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 1881 26
Indian Trusts Act 1882 2
Transfer of Property Act 1882 4
Indian Easements Act 1882 5
Powers-of-Attorney Act 1882 7
Presidency Small Cause Courts Act 1882 15
Madras Forest (Validation) Act 1882 21
Bikrama Singh’s Estates Act 1883 10
Land Improvement Loans Act 1883 19
Punjab District Boards Act 1883 20
Explosives Act 1884 4
Agriculturists’ Loans Act 1884 12
Bengal Tenancy Act 1885 8
Indian Telegraph Act 1885 13
Land Acquisition (Mines) Act 1885 18
Mirzapur Stone Mahal Act 1886 5
Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act 1886 6
Indian Tramways Act 1886 11
Oudh Wasikas Act 1886 21
Suits Valuation Act 1887 7
Provincial Small Cause Courts Act 1887 9
Bengal, Agra and Assam Civil Courts Act 1887 12
Punjab Tenancy Act 1887 16
Punjab Land Revenue Act 1887 17
King of Oudh’s Estate Act 1887 19
Indian Police Act 1888 3
Indian Reserve Forces Act 1888 4
Indian Tolls Act 1888 8
City of Bombay Municipal (Supplementary) Act 1888 12
King of Oudh’s Estate Act 1888 14
Metal Tokens Act 1889 1
Revenue Recovery Act 1890 1
Charitable Endowments Act 1890 6
Guardians and Wards Act 1890 8
Excise (Malt Liquors) Act 1890 13
United Provinces Act 1890 20
Easements (Extending Act 5 of 1882) 1891 8
Murshidabad Act 1891 15
Colonial Courts of Admiralty (India) Act 1891 16
Bankers’ Books Evidence Act 1891 18
Marriages Validation Act 1892 2
Bengal Military Police Act 1892 5
Madras City Civil Court Act 1892 7
Government Management of Private Estates Act 1892 10
Porahat Estate Act 1893 2
Partition Act 1893 4
Sir Dinshaw Maneckjee Petit 1893 6
Land Acquisition Act 1894 1
Prisons Act 1894 9
Government Grants Act 1895 15
Epidemic Diseases Act 1897 3
Indian Fisheries Act 1897 4
Amending Act 1897 5
Reformatory Schools Act 1897 8
General Clauses Act 1897 10
Indian Short Titles Act 1897 14
Lepers Act 1898 3
Indian Post Office Act 1898 6
Live-stock Importation Act 1898 9
Central Provinces Tenancy Act 1898 11
Indian Stamp Act 1899 2
Government Buildings Act 1899 4
Glanders and Farcy Act 1899 13
Church of Scotland Kirk Sessions Act 1899 23
Central Provinces Court of Wards Act 1899 24
Prisoners Act 1900 3

1901–1925

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Indian Tolls (Army and Air Force) Act 1901 2
Amending Act 1901 11
Indian Tramways Act 1902 4
Amending Act 1903 1
Works of Defence Act 1903 7
Victoria Memorial Act 1903 10
Ancient Monuments Preservation Act 1904 7
Indian Railway Board Act 1905 4
Coinage Act 1906 3
Code of Civil Procedure 1908 5
Explosive Substances Act 1908 6
Central Provinces Financial Commissioner’s Act 1908 13
Indian Criminal Law Amendment Act 1908 14
Indian Ports Act 1908 15
Registration Act 1908 16
Presidency-towns Insolvency Act 1909 3
Anand Marriage Act 1909 7
Dourine Act 1910 5
Indian Museum Act 1910 10
Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act 1911 10
Co-operative Societies Act 1912 2
Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and Assam Laws Act 1912 7
Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act 1912 8
Delhi Laws Act 1912 13
Official Trustees Act 1913 2
White Phosphorus Matches Prohibition Act 1913 5
Mussalman Wakf Validating Act 1913 6
Destructive Insects and Pests Act 1914 2
Local Authorities Loans Act 1914 9
Delhi Laws Act 1915 7
Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Baronetcy Act 1915 10
Banaras Hindu University Act 1915 16
Indian Medical Degrees Act 1916 7
Hindu Disposition of Property Act 1916 15
Inland Vessels Act 1917 1
Destruction of Records Act 1917 5
King of Oudh’s Estate Validation Act 1917 12
Post Office Cash Certificates Act 1917 18
Cinematograph Act 1918 2
Usurious Loans Act 1918 10
Bronze Coin (Legal Tender) Act 1918 22
Local Authorities Pensions and Gratuities Act 1919 1
Poisons Act 1919 12
Calcutta High Court (Jurisdictional Limits) Act 1919 15
Provincial Insolvency Act 1920 5
Indian Securities Act 1920 10
Charitable and Religious Trusts Act 1920 14
Indian Red Cross Society Act 1920 15
Indian Rifles Act 1920 23
Identification of Prisoners Act 1920 33
Passport (Entry into India) Act 1920 34
Aligarh Muslim University Act 1920 40
Maintenance Orders Enforcement Act 1921 18
Delhi University Act 1922 8
Police (Incitement to Disaffection) Act 1922 22
Indian Boilers Act 1923 5
Cantonments (House Accommodation) Act 1923 6
Indian Naval Armament Act 1923 7
Workmen’s Compensation Act 1923 8
Official Secrets Act 1923 19
Legal Practitioners (Women) Act 1923 23
Mussalman Wakf Act 1923 42
Cantonments Act 1924 2
Bengal Criminal Law Amendment (Supplementary) Act 1925 0
Indian Soldiers (Litigation) Act 1925 4
Provident Funds Act 1925 19
Sikh Gurdwaras (Supplementary) Act 1925 24
Indian Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1925 26
Madras, Bengal and Bombay Children (Supplementary) Act 1925 35
Indian Succession Act 1925 39

1926–1950

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Trade Unions Act 1926 16
Legal Practitioners (Fees) Act 1926 21
Indian Bar Councils Act 1926 38
Indian Forest Act 1927 16
Light House Act 1927 17
Hindu Inheritance (Removal of Disabilities) Act 1928 12
Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929 19
Transfer of Property (Amendment) Supplementary Act 1929 21
Sale of Goods Act 1930 3
Hindu Gains of Learning Act 1930 30
Mussalman Wakf Validating Act 1930 32
Provisional Collection of Taxes Act 1931 16
Sheriff of Calcutta (Power of Custody) Act 1931 20
Indian Partnership Act 1932 9
Public Suits Validation Act 1932 11
Criminal Law Amendment Act 1932 23
Bengal Suppression of Terrorist Outrages (Supplementary) Act 1932 24
Children (Pledging of Labour) Act 1933 2
Indian Wireless Telegraphy Act 1933 17
Murshidabad Estate Administration Act 1933 23
Reserve Bank of India Act 1934 2
Sugar-cane Act 1934 15
Aircraft Act 1934 22
Assam Criminal Law Amendment (Supplementary) Act 1934 27
Petroleum Act 1934 30
Jubbalpore and Chhattisgarh Divisions (Divorce Proceedings Validation) Act 1935 13
Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act 1936 3
Payment of Wages Act 1936 4
Decrees and Orders Validating Act 1936 5
Bangalore Marriages Validating Act 1936 16
Red Cross Society (Allocation of Property) Act 1936 18
Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act 1937 1
Arya Marriage Validation Act 1937 19
Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act 1937 26
Insurance Act 1938 4
Manoeuvres, Field Firing and Artillery Practice Act 1938 5
Cutchi Memons Act 1938 10
Criminal Law Amendment Act 1938 20
Employers’ Liability Act 1938 24
Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939 8
Registration of Foreigners Act 1939 16
Commercial Documents Evidence Act 1939 30
Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 23
Agricultural Produce Cess Act 1940 27
Berar Laws Act 1941 4
Assam Rifles Act 1941 5
Delhi Restriction of Uses of Land Act 1941 12
Railways (Local Authorities’ Taxation) Act 1941 25
Coffee Act 1942 7
Weekly Holidays Act 1942 18
Reciprocity Act 1943 9
War Injuries (Compensation Insurance) Act 1943 23
Central Excise Act 1944 1
Public Debt Act 1944 18
International Monetary Fund and Bank Act 1945 0
Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945 67
Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act 1946 20
Mica Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act 1946 22
Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946 25
Foreigners Act 1946 31
Industrial Disputes Act 1947 14
Armed Forces (Emergency Duties) Act 1947 15
Trading with the Enemy (Continuance of Emergency Provisions) Act 1947 16
Rubber Act 1947 24
United Nations (Security Council) Act 1947 43
United Nations (Privileges and Immunities) Act 1947 46
Foreign Jurisdiction Act 1947 47
Indian Nursing Council Act 1947 48
Pharmacy Act 1948 8
Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act 1948 9
Minimum Wages Act 1948 11
Rehabilitation Finance Administration Act 1948 12
Damodar Valley Corporation Act 1948 14
Dentists Act 1948 16
Junagarh Administration (Property) Act 1948 26
National Cadet Corps Act 1948 31
Calcutta Port (Pilotage) Act 1948 33
Employees’ State Insurance Act 1948 34
Census Act 1948 37
Continuance of Legal Proceedings Act 1948 38
Indian Matrimonial Causes (War Marriages) Act 1948 40
Diplomatic and Consular Officers (Oaths and Fees) Act 1948 41
Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1948 46
Imperial Library (Change of Name) Act 1948 51
Bombay Public Security Measures (Delhi Amendment) Act 1948 52
Oil Fields (Regulation and Development) Act 1948 53
Territorial Army Act 1948 56
Exchange of Prisoners Act 1948 58
Resettlement of Displaced Persons (Land Acquisition) Act 1948 60
Central Silk Board Act 1948 61
Reserve Bank (Transfer of Public Ownership) Act 1948 62
Factories Act 1948 63
Delhi and Ajmer-Merwara Land Development Act 1948 66
Mangrol and Manavadar (Administration of Property) Act 1949 2
Scheduled Securities (Hyderabad) Act 1949 7
Seaward Artillery Practice Act 1949 8
Banking Regulation Act 1949 10
West Godavari District (Assimilation of Laws on Federal Subjects) Act 1949 20
Delhi Hotels (Control of Accommodation) Act 1949 24
Chartered Accountants Act 1949 38
Requisitioned Land (Apportionment of Compensation) Act 1949 51
Industrial Disputes (Banking and Insurance Companies) Act 1949 54
Merged States (Laws) Act 1949 59
Professions Tax Limitation (Amendment and Validation) Act 1949 61
Police Act 1949 64
Central Reserve Police Force Act 1949 66
High Courts (Seals) Act 1950 7
Immigrants (Expulsion from Assam) Act 1950 10
Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act 1950 12
Special Criminal Courts (Jurisdiction) Act 1950 18
Drugs Control Act 1950 26
Transfer of Prisoners Act 1950 29
Union Territories (Laws) Act 1950 30
Opium and Revenue Laws (Extension of Application) Act 1950 33
Army and Air Force (Disposal of Private Property) Act 1950 40
Ajmer Tenancy and Land Records Act 1950 42
Representation of the People Act 1950 43
Air Force Act 1950 45
Army Act 1950 46
Contingency Fund of India Act 1950 49
Road Transport Corporations Act 1950 64
Cooch-Behar (Assimilation of Laws) Act 1950 67
Telegraph Wires (Unlawful Possession) Act 1950 74
Khaddar (Protection of Name) Act 1950 78

1951–1975

Companies act 1956

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Part B States (Laws) Act 1951 3
Supreme Court Advocates (Practice in High Courts) Act 1951 18
Jallianwala Bagh National Memorial Act 1951 25
Visva-Bharati Act 1951 29
President’s Emoluments and Pension Act 1951 30
Finance Commission (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1951 33
Scheduled Areas (Assimilation of Laws) Act 1951 37
Marking of Heavy Packages Act 1951 39
 Rajghat Samadhi Act 1951 41
Representation of the People Act 1951 43
Assam (Alteration of Boundaries) Act 1951 47
Railway Companies (Emergency Provisions) Act 1951 51
Companies (Donations to National Funds) Act 1951 54
All-India Services Act 1951 61
State Financial Corporations Act 1951 63
Evacuee Interest (Separation) Act 1951 64
Industries (Development and Regulation) Act 1951 65
Part C States Miscellaneous Laws (Repealing) Act 1951 66
Plantations Labour Act 1951 69
Displaced Persons (Debts Adjustment) Act 1951 70
Part B States Marriages Validating Act 1952 1
Indian Independence Pakistan Courts (Pending Proceedings) Act 1952 9
Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952 19
Inflammable Substances Act 1952 20
Requisitioning and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act 1952 30
Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act 1952 31
Mines Act 1952 35
Cinematograph Act 1952 37
Delhi and Ajmer Rent Control Act 1952 38
Notaries Act 1952 53
Salaries and Allowances of Ministers Act 1952 58
Commissions of Inquiry Act 1952 60
Reserve and Auxiliary Air Forces Act 1952 62
State Armed Police Forces (Extension of Laws) Act 1952 63
Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act 1952 74
Scheduled Areas (Assimilation of Laws) Act 1953 16
Salaries and Allowances of Officers of Parliament Act 1953 20
Tea Act 1953 29
Andhra State Act 1953 30
Collection of Statistics Act 1953 32
Calcutta High Court (Extension of Jurisdiction) Act 1953 41
Coir Industry Act 1953 45
Salt Cess Act 1953 49
Reserve Bank of India (Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1953 54
Transfer of Evacuee Deposits Act 1954 15
Lushai Hills District (Change of Name) Act 1954 18
Absorbed Areas (Laws) Act 1954 20
Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954 21
State Acquisition of Lands for Union Purposes (Validation) Act 1954 23
Delivery of Books and Newspapers (Public Libraries) Act 1954 27
High Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Act 1954 28
Salary, Allowances and Pension of Members of Parliament Act 1954 30
Shillong (Rifle Range and Umlong) Cantonments Assimilation of Laws Act 1954 31
Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur (New State) Act 1954 32
Chandernagore (Merger) Act 1954 36
Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954 37
Taxation Laws (Extension to Jammu and Kashmir) Act 1954 41
Special Marriage Act 1954 43
Essential Commodities Act 1955 10
Medicinal and Toilet Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955 16
Commanders-in-Chief (Change in Designation) Act 1955 19
Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 22
State Bank of India Act 1955 23
Hindu Marriage Act 1955 25
Prisoners (Attendance in Courts) Act 1955 32
Durgah Khawaja Saheb Act 1955 36
Spirituous Preparation (Inter-State Trade and Commerce) Control Act 1955 39
Prize Competitions Act 1955 42
Working Journalists and other Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1955 45
Manipur (Courts) Act 1955 56
Citizenship Act 1955 57
Companies Act 1956 1
University Grants Commission Act 1956 3
Bar Councils (Validation of State Laws) Act 1956 4
Sales Tax Laws Validation Act 1956 7
All-India Institute of Medical Sciences Act 1956 25
Hindu Succession Act 1956 30
Life Insurance Corporation Act 1956 31
Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act 1956 32
Interstate River Water Disputes Act 1956 33
Industrial Disputes (Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1956 36
States Reorganisation Act 1956 37
Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act 1956 40
Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act 1956 42
Newspaper (Price and Page) Act 1956 45
National Highways Act 1956 48
River Boards Act 1956 49
Lok Sahayak Sena Act 1956 53
Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Act 1956 55
Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act 1956 61
Jammu and Kashmir (Extension of Laws) Act 1956 62
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Act 1956 63
Terminal Tax on Railway Passengers Act 1956 69
Central Sales Tax Act 1956 74
Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act 1956 78
State Bank of Hyderabad Act 1956 79
Manipur (Village Authorities in Hill Areas) Act 1956 80
Representation of the People (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1956 88
Faridabad Development Corporation Act 1956 90
Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act 1956 93
Slum Areas (Improvement and Clearance) Act 1956 96
Indian Medical Council Act 1956 102
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act 1956 104
Women’s and Children’s Institutions (Licensing) Act 1956 105
Copyright Act 1957 14
Coal Bearing Areas (Acquisition and Development) Act 1957 20
Railway Protection Force Act 1957 23
Wealth-Tax Act 1957 27
Legislative Councils Act 1957 37
Inter-State Corporation Act 1957 38
Naga Hills-Tuensang Area Act 1957 42
Public Employment (Requirement as to Residence) Act 1957 44
Cantonments (Extension of Rent Control Laws) Act 1957 46
Additional Duties of Excise (Goods of Special Importance) Act 1957 58
Delhi Development Act 1957 61
Navy Act 1957 62
Delhi Municipal Corporation Act 1957 66
Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act 1957 67
Gift-tax Act 1958 18
Probation of Offenders Act 1958 20
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act 1958 24
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958 28
Working Journalists (Fixation of Rates of Wages) Act 1958 29
Manipur and Tripura (Repeal of Laws) Act 1958 35
Supreme Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Act 1958 41
International Finance Corporation (Status, Immunities and Privileges) Act 1958 42
Merchant Shipping Act 1958 44
Himachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly (Constitution and Proceedings) Validation Act 1958 56
Orissa Weights and Measures (Delhi Repeal) Act 1958 57
Delhi Rent Control Act 1958 59
Parliament (Prevention of Disqualification) Act 1959 10
Cost and Works Accountants Act 1959 23
Public Wakfs (Extension of Limitation) Act 1959 29
Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act 1959 31
State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act 1959 38
Travancore-Cochin Vehicles Taxation (Amendment and Validation) Act 1959 42
Government Savings Certificates Act 1959 46
Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (Transfer of Territories) Act 1959 47
Miscellaneous Personal Laws (Extension) Act 1959 48
Arms Act 1959 54
Andhra Pradesh and Madras Alteration of Boundaries Act 1959 56
Indian Statistical Institute Act 1959 57
Married Women’s Property (Extension) Act 1959 61
Geneva Conventions Act 1960 6
Orphanages and Other Charitable Homes (Supervision and Control) Act 1960 10
Bombay Reorganisation Act 1960 11
Hindu Marriages (Validation of Proceedings) Act 1960 19
Delhi Land Holdings (Ceiling) Act 1960 24
International Development Association (Status, Immunities and Privileges) Act 1960 32
Manipur Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act 1960 33
Central Excises (Conversion to Metric Units) Act 1960 38
Delhi Primary Education Act 1960 39
Customs Duties and Cesses (Conversion to Metric Units) Act 1960 40
Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act 1960 43
Mahendra Pratap Singh Estate (Repeal) Act 1960 48
British Statutes (Application to India) Repeal Act 1960 57
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 1960 59
Preference Shares (Regulation of Dividend) Act 1960 63
Acquired Territories (Merger) Act 1960 64
Criminal Law Amendment Act 1961 23
Advocates Act 1961 25
Salar Jung Museum Act 1961 26
Motor Transport Workers Act 1961 27
Dowry Prohibition Act 1961 28
Delhi (Urban Areas) Tenants’ Relief Act 1961 30
Union Territories (Stamp and Court-fees Laws) Act 1961 33
Dadra and Nagar Haveli Act 1961 35
Newspaper (Price and Page Continuance) Act 1961 36
Income-tax Act 1961 43
Voluntary Surrender of Salaries (Exemption from Taxation) Act 1961 46
Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation Act 1961 47
Assam Municipal (Manipur Amendment) Act 1961 49
Apprentices Act 1961 52
Maternity Benefit Act 1961 53
Sugar (Regulation of Production) Act 1961 55
Institutes of Technology Act 1961 59
Goa, Daman and Diu (Administration) Act 1962 1
Hindi Sahitya Sammelan Act 1962 13
National Co-operative Development Corporation Act 1962 26
State of Nagaland Act 1962 27
Land Acquisition (Amendment) Act 1962 31
Atomic Energy Act 1962 33
Extradition Act 1962 34
Foreigners Law (Application and Amendment) Act 1962 42
Pondicherry (Administration) Act 1962 49
Petroleum and Minerals Pipelines (Acquisition of Right of User in Land) Act 1962 50
Customs Act 1962 52
Manipur (Sales of Motor Spirit and Lubricants) Taxation Act 1962 55
State Associated Banks (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1962 56
Delhi Motor Vehicles Taxation Act 1962 57
Warehousing Corporations Act 1962 58
Marine Insurance Act 1963 11
Official Languages Act 1963 19
Government of Union Territories Act 1963 20
Compulsory Deposit Scheme Act 1963 21
Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act 1963 22
Limitation Act 1963 36
Personal Injuries (Compensation Insurance) Act 1963 37
Major Port Trusts Act 1963 38
Textiles Committee Act 1963 41
Administrators-General Act 1963 45
Specifice Relief Act 1963 47
Unit Trust of India Act 1963 52
Central Boards of Revenue Act 1963 54
Companies (Profits) Surtax Act 1964 7
Taxation Laws (Continuation and Validation of Recovery Proceedings) Act 1964 11
Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha Act 1964 14
Delhi Delegation of Powers Act 1964 23
Legal Tender (Inscribed Notes) Act 1964 28
Food Corporation of India Act 1964 37
Warehousing Corporations (Supplementary) Act 1965 20
Payment of Bonus Act 1965 21
Banking Laws (Application to Co-operative Societies) Act 1965 23
Goa, Daman and Diu (Extension of the Code of Civil Procedure and the Arbitration Act) Act 1965 30
Railways Employment of Members of the Armed Forces Act 1965 40
Taxation Laws (Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1965 41
Cardamom Act 1965 42
Union Territories (Direct Election to the House of the People) Act 1965 49
Goa, Daman and Diu (Absorbed Employees) Act 1965 50
Seamen’s Provident Fund Act 1966 4
Produce Cess Act 1966 15
Asian Development Bank Act 1966 18
Delhi High Court Act 1966 26
Railway Property (Unlawful Possession) Act 1966 29
Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966 31
Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act 1966 32
Police Forces (Restriction of Rights) Act 1966 33
Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Act 1966 51
Jawaharlal Nehru University Act 1966 53
Seeds Act 1966 54
Land Acquisition (Amendment and Validation) Act 1967 13
Passports Act 1967 15
Anti-Corruption Laws (Amendment) Act 1967 16
Standards of Weights and Measures (Extension to Kohima and Mokokchung Districts) Act 1967 25
Court-fees (Delhi Amendment) Act 1967 28
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act 1967 37
Jammu and Kashmir Representation of the People (Supplementary) Act 1968 3
Public Provident Fund Act 1968 23
Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act 1968 24
Central Laws (Extension to Jammu and Kashmir) Act 1968 25
Pondicherry (Extension of Laws) Act 1968 26
Civil Defence Act 1968 27
Enemy Property Act 1968 34
Andhra Pradesh and Mysore (Transfer of Territory) Act. 1968 36
Insecticides Act 1968 46
Border Security Force Act 1968 47
Delhi and Ajmer Rent Control (Nasirabad Cantonment Repeal) Act 1968 49
Central Industrial Security Force Act 1968 50
Judges (Inquiry) Act 1968 51
State Agricultural Credit Corporation Act 1968 60
Legislative Assembly of Nagaland (Change in Representation) Act 1968 61
President (Discharge of Functions) Act 1969 16
Registration of Births and Deaths Act 1969 18
Union Territories (Separation of Judicial and Executive Functions) Act 1969 19
Central Sales Tax (Amendment) Act 1969 28
Foreign Marriage Act 1969 33
Criminal and Election Laws Amendment Act 1969 35
Bihar Land Reforms Laws (Regulating Mines and Minerals) Validation Act 1969 42
Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library Act 1969 43
Oaths Act 1969 44
Punjab Legislative Council (Abolition) Act 1969 46
Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1969 54
Assam Reorganisation (Meghalaya) Act 1969 55
Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1970 5
Haryana and Punjab Agricultural Universities Act 1970 16
Supreme Court (Enlargement of Criminal Appellate Jurisdiction) Act 1970 28
Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act 1970 37
Patents Act 1970 39
Indian Medicine Central Council Act 1970 48
Central Labour Laws (Extension to Jammu and Kashmir) Act 1970 51
State of Himachal Pradesh Act 1970 53
Bengal Finance (Sales Tax) (Delhi Validation of Appointments and Proceedings) Act 1971 20
Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971 34
Public Premises (Eviction of Unauthorised Occupants) Act 1971 40
Small Coins (Offences) Act 1971 52
Coal Bearing Areas (Acquisition and Development) Amendment and Validation Act 1971 54
Comptroller and Auditor General’s (Duties, Powers and Conditions of Service) Act 1971 56
Naval and Aircraft Prize Act 1971 59
Jayanti Shipping Company (Acquisition of Shares) Act 1971 63
Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act 1971 64
Asian Refractories Limited (Acquisition of Undertakings) Act 1971 65
Uttar Pradesh Cantonments (Control of Rent and Eviction) Repeal Act 1971 68
Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act 1971 69
Contempt of Courts Act 1971 70
Delhi Road Transport Laws (Amendment) Act 1971 71
Manipur (Hill Areas District Council) Act 1971 76
North-Eastern Area (Reorganisation) Act 1971 81
Delhi Sikh Gurdwaras Act 1971 82
North-Eastern Council Act 1971 84
Marine Products Export Development Authority Act 1972 13
Departmental Inquiries (Enforcement of Attendance of Witnesses and Production of Documents) Act 1972 18
Architects Act 1972 20
Taxation Laws (Extension to Jammu and Kashmir) Act 1972 25
National Service Act 1972 28
Delhi Lands (Restriction on Transfer) Act 1972 30
Delhi Co-operative Societies Act 1972 35
Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act 1972 36
Payment of Gratuity Act 1972 39
Diplomatic Relations (Vienna Convention) Act 1972 43
Antiquities and Art Treasures Act 1972 52
Wild Life (Protection) Act 1972 53
General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act 1972 57
Indian Copper Corporation (Acquisition of Undertaking) Act 1972 58
Former Secretary of State Service Officers (Conditions of Service) Act 1972 59
Limestone and Dolomite Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act 1972 62
Carriage by Air Act 1972 69
Sick Textile Undertakings (Taking Over of Management) Act 1972 72
Richardson and Cruddas Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1972 78
Diplomatic and Consular Officers (Oaths and Fees) (Extension to Jammu and Kashmir) Act 1973 2
Coal Mines (Taking Over of Management) Act 1973 15
Capital of Punjab Development and Regulation (Chandigarh Amendment) Act 1973 17
Delhi School Education Act 1973 18
North-Eastern Hill University Act 1973 24
Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act 1973 26
Authoritative Texts (Central Laws) Act 1973 50
Alcock Ashdown Company Limited (Acquisition of Undertakings) Act 1973 56
Homoeopathy Central Council Act 1973 59
Konkan Passenger Ships (Acquisition) Act 1973 62
Delhi Urban Art Commission Act, 1973 1974 1
Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 1974 2
Esso (Acquisition of Undertakings in India) Act 1974 4
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 6
Economic Offences (Inapplicability of Limitation) Act 1974 12
Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act 1974 28
Additional Emoluments (Compulsory Deposit) Act 1974 37
University of Hyderabad Act 1974 39
Interest-tax Act 1974 45
Oil Industry (Development) Act 1974 47
Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act 1974 52
East-Punjab Urban Rent Restriction (Extension to Chandigarh) Act 1974 54
Sick Textile Undertakings (Nationalisation) Act 1974 57
Tobacco Board Act 1975 4
All-India Services Regulations (Indemnity) Act 1975 19
Tokyo Convention Act 1975 20
Rampur Raza Library Act 1975 22
Tobacco Cess Act 1975 26
Delhi Sales Tax Act 1975 43
Cigarettes (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 1975 49
Customs Tariff Act 1975 51

1976–2000

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Burmah Shell (Acquisition of Undertakings in India) Act 1976 2
Election Laws (Extension to Sikkim) Act 1976 10
Sales Promotion Employees (Conditions of Service) Act 1976 11
Smugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act 1976 13
Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976 19
Regional Rural Banks Act 1976 21
Assam Sillimanite Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Refractory Plant) Act 1976 22
Equal Remuneration Act 1976 25
Parliamentary Proceedings (Protection of Publication) Repeal Act 1976 28
Levy Sugar Price Equalisation Fund Act 1976 31
Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act 1976 33
Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act 1976 49
Iron Ore Mines, Manganese Ore Mines and Chrome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Cess Act 1976 55
Beedi Workers Welfare Cess Act 1976 56
High Court at Patna (Establishment of a Permanent Bench at Ranchi) Act 1976 57
Departmentalisation of Union Accounts (Transfer of Personnel) Act 1976 59
Standards of Weights and Measures Act 1976 60
Iron Ore Mines, Manganese Ore Mines and Chrome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act 1976 61
Beedi Workers Welfare Fund Act 1976 62
Betwa River Board Act 1976 63
Life Insurance Corporation (Modification of Settlement) Act 1976 72
National Library of India Act 1976 76
Disturbed Areas (Special Courts) Act 1976 77
Territorial Waters, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and other Maritime Zones Act 1976 80
Delhi Agricultural Produce Marketing (Regulation) Act 1976 87
Indian Iron and Steel Company (Acquisition of Shares) Act 1976 89
Delhi Sales Tax (Amendment and Validation) Act 1976 91
Braithwaite and Company (India) Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1976 96
Burn Company and Indian Standard Wagon Company (Nationalisation) Act 1976 97
Laxmirattan and Atherton West Cotton Mills (Taking Over of Management) Act 1976 98
Metal Corporation (Nationalisation and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1976 100
Untouchability (Offences) Amendment and Miscellaneous Provision Act 1976 106
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Orders (Amendment) Act 1976 108
Parliamentary Proceedings (Protection of Publication) Act 1977 15
Disputed Elections (Prime Minister and Speaker) Act 1977 16
Caltex (Acquisition of Shares of Caltex Oil Refining (India) Limited and of the Undertakings in India of Caltex (India) Limited) Act 1977 17
Salary and Allowances of Leaders of Opposition in Parliament Act 1977 33
Lady Hardinge Medical College and Hospital (Acquisition and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1977 34
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act 1977 36
Smith, Stainstreet and Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1977 41
Gresham and Craven of India (Private) Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1977 42
High Denomination Bank Notes (Demonetisation) Act 1978 11
Hindustan Tractors Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1978 13
Interest Act 1978 14
Public Sector Iron and Steel Companies (Restructuring) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1978 16
Deposit Insurance Corporation (Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1978 21
Coast Guard Act 1978 30
Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978 1978 33
Delhi Police Act 1978 34
Press Council Act 1978 37
Additional Duties of Excise (Textiles and Textile Articles) Act 1978 40
Britannia Engineering Company Limited (Mokameh Unit) and the Arthur Butler and Company (Muzaffarpore) Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1978 41
Bolani Ores Limited (Acquisition of Shares) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1978 42
Prize Chits and Money Circulation Scheme (Banning) Act 1978 43
Sugar Undertakings (Taking Over of Management) Act 1978 49
Coconut Development Board Act 1979 5
Punjab Excise (Delhi Amendment) Act 1979 12
Union Duties of Excise (Distribution) Act 1979 24
Kosangas Company (Acquisition of Undertakings) Act 1979 28
Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act 1979 30
Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act 1979 31
Prevention of Blackmarketing and Maintenance of Supplies of Essential Commodities Act external source 1980 7
Delhi High Court (Amendment) Act 1980 37
Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1980 40
Essential Services Maintenance (Assam) Act 1980 41
National Company (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1980 42
Brahmaputra Board Act 1980 46
Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Act 1980 52
Hotel-Receipts Tax Act 1980 54
Company Secretaries Act 1980 56
Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1980 58
Jute Companies (Nationalisation) Act 1980 62
Maruti Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1980 64
National Security Act 1980 65
Bird and Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings and Other Properties) Act 1980 67
Forest (Conservation) Act 1980 69
Hind Cycles Limited and Sen-Raleigh Limited (Nationalisation) Act 1980 70
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 14
High Court and Bombay (Extension of Jurisdiction to Goa, Daman and Diu) Act 1981 26
Export-Import Bank of India Act 1981 28
British India Corporation Limited (Acquisition of Shares) Act 1981 29
Cine-Workers Welfare Cess Act 1981 30
Dalmia Dadri Cement Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1981 31
Cine-Workers Welfare Fund Act 1981 33
Burmah Oil Company (Acquisition of Shares of Oil India Limited and of the Undertakings in India of Assam Oil Company Limited and the Burmah Oil Company (India Trading) Limited) Act 1981 41
Maritime Zones of India (Regulation of Fishing by Foreign Vessels) Act 1981 42
Anti-Apartheid (United Nations Convention) Act 1981 48
Cine-Workers and Cinema Theatre Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act 1981 50
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Act 1981 61
African Development Fund Act 1982 1
Sugar Cess Act 1982 3
Sugar Development Fund Act 1982 4
Chaparmukh Silghat Railway Line and the Katakhal Lalabazar Railway Line (Nationalisation) Act 1982 36
Chit Funds Act 1982 40
The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Amendment Act, 1982 1982 41
Governors (Emoluments, Allowances and Privileges) Act 1982 43
National Waterway (Allahabad-Haldia Stretch of the Ganges-Bhagirathi, Hooghly River) Act 1982 49
Amritsar Oil Works (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1982 50
State Bank of Sikkim (Acquisition of Shares) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1982 62
Anti-Hijacking Act 1982 65
Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Civil Aviation Act 1982 66
Andhra Scientific Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1982 71
African Development Bank Act 1983 13
Jute Manufacturers Development Council Act 1983 27
Jute Manufactures Cess Act 1983 28
National Oil Seeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board Act 1983 29
Emigration Act 1983 31
Punjab Disturbed Areas Act 1983 32
Chandigarh Disturbed Areas Act 1983 33
Armed Forces (Punjab and Chandigarh) Special Powers Act 1983 34
Dangerous Machines (Regulation) Act 1983 35
Illegal Migrants (Determination by Tribunals) Act 1983 39
Textile Undertakings (Taking Over of Management) Act 1983 40
Transformer and Switchgear Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1983 41
Public Financial Institutions (Obligation as to Fidelity and Secrecy) Act 1983 48
Prevention of Damage to Public Property Act 1984 3
Asiatic Society Act 1984 5
Ganesh Flour Mills Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1984 16
Inchek Tyres Limited and National Rubber Manufacturers Limited (Nationalisation) Act 1984 17
Mogul Line Limited (Acquisition of Shares) Act 1984 33
 Punjab State Legislature (Delegation of Powers) Act 1984 36
Aluminium Corporation of India Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Aluminium Undertaking) Act 1984 43
Indian Veterinary Council Act 1984 52
Hooghly Docking and Engineering Company Limited (Acquisition of Undertakings and Transfer) Act 1984 55
Bengal Immunity Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1984 57
Terrorist Affected Areas (Special Courts) Act 1984 61
Industrial Reconstruction Bank of India Act 1984 62
Family Courts Act 1984 66
National Capital Region Planning Board Act 1985 2
General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Amendment Act 1985 3
Calcutta Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Temporary Provisions Act 1985 10
Administrative Tribunals Act 1985 13
Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster (Processing of Claims) Act 1985 21
Handlooms (Reservation of Articles for Production) Act 1985 22
Tea Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Sick Tea Units) Act 1985 37
Indira Gandhi National Open University Act 1985 50
Pondicherry University Act 1985 53
Standards of Weights and Measures (Enforcement) Act 1985 54
Intelligence Organisations (Restriction on Rights) Act 1985 58
Judges (Protection) Act 1985 59
Railway Protection Force (Amendment) Act 1985 60
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 61
Central Excises and Salt (Amendment) Act 1985 79
Customs (Amendment) Act 1985 80
Banking Laws (Amendment) Act 1985 81
Inland Waterways Authority of India Act 1985 82
Futwah-Islampur Light Railway Line (Nationalisation) Act 1985 83
Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985 Rep. by Act 1 of 04 (w.e.f.- – ) 1986 1
Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act, 1985 1986 2
Central Excise Tariff Act, 1985 1986 5
Spices Board Act 1986 10
Administrative Tribunals (Amendment) Act 1986 19
Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act 1986 25
Coal Mines Labour Welfare Fund (Repeal) Act 1986 27
Environment (Protection) Act 1986 29
Swadeshi Cotton Mills Company Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1986 30
Research and Development Cess Act 1986 32
Merchant Shipping (Amendment) Act 1986 33
State of Mizoram Act 1986 34
Taxation Laws (Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1986 46
National Security Guard Act 1986 47
Dock Workers (Safety, Health and Welfare) Act 1986 54
Delhi Fire Prevention and Fire Safety Act 1986 56
Delhi Apartment Ownership Act 1986 58
Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act 1986 60
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986 61
Bureau of Indian Standards Act 1986 63
Shipping Development Fund Committee (Abolition) Act 1986 66
Consumer Protection Act 1986 68
State of Arunachal Pradesh Act 1986 69
Cotton Copra and Vegetable Oils Cess (Abolition) Act 1987 4
Jute Packaging Materials (Compulsory Use in Packing Commodities) Act 1987 10
Merchant Shipping (Amendment) Act 1987 13
Mental Health Act 1987 14
Goa, Daman and Diu Mining Concessions (Abolition and Declaration as Mining Leases) Act 1987 16
Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act followed by Constitution (Fifty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1987 1987 18
Payment of Gratuity (Amendment) Act 1987 22
Expenditure-tax Act 1987 35
Brentford Electric (India) Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Act 1987 36
National Dairy Development Board Act 1987 37
Legal Services Authorities Act 1987 39
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Amendment Act 1987 47
All India Council for Technical Education Act 1987 52
National Housing Bank Act 1987 53
Railway Claims Tribunal Act 1987 54
Chandigarh (Delegation of Powers) Act, 1987 1988 2
Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987 1988 3
Tamil Nadu Agricultural Service Co-operative Societies (Appointment of Special Officers) Amendment Act 1988 22
Companies (Amendment) Act 1988 31
Employees’ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions (Amendment) Act 1988 33
Special Protection Group Act 1988 34
National Waterway (Sadiya-Dhubri Stretch of the Brahmaputra River) Act 1988 40
Religious Institutions (Prevention of Misuse) Act 1988 41
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (Determination of Conditions of Service of Employees) Act 1988 44
Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 1988 45
Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act 1988 46
Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 1988 49
Labour Laws (Exemption from Furnishing Returns and Maintaining Registers by certain Establishments) Act 1988 51
Auroville Foundation Act 1988 54
Jamia Millia Islamia Act 1988 58
Motor Vehicles Act 1988 59
National Highways Authority of India Act 1988 68
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Amendment) Act, 1988 1989 2
Direct Tax Laws (Amendment) Act 1989 3
Representation of the People (Amendment) Act 1989 21
Assam University Act 1989 23
Railways Act 1989 24
Employees’ State Insurance (Amendment) Act 1989 29
Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 1989 33
Nagaland University Act 1989 35
Small Industries Development Bank of India Act 1989 39
National Commission for Women Act 1990 20
Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act 1990 21
Prasar Bharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) Act 1990 25
Public Liability Insurance Act 1991 6
Election Commission (Conditions of Service of Election Commissioners and Transaction of Business) Act 1991 11
Remittances of Foreign Exchange and Investment in Foreign Exchange Bonds (Immunities and Exemptions) Act 1991 41
Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act 1991 42
Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act 1991 44
Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi Act, 1991 1992 1
Destructive Insects and Pests (Amendment and Validation) Act 1992 12
Securities and Exchange Board of India Act 1992 15
Cess and Other Taxes on Minerals (Validation) Act 1992 16
National Commission for Minorities Act 1992 19
Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act 1992 22
National Waterway (Kollam-Kottapuram Stretch of West Coast Canal and Champakara and Udyogmandal Canals) Act 1992 25
Special Court (Trial of Offences Relating to Transactions in Securities) Act 1992 27
Rehabilitation Council of India Act 1992 34
Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force Act 1992 35
Central Agricultural University Act 1992 40
Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 1992 41
Industrial Finance Corporation (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act 1993 23
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited, the National Hydro-Electric Power Corporation Limited and the North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Power Transmission Systems) Act 1993 24
Gold Bonds (Immunities and Exemptions) Act 1993 25
National Commission for Backward Classes Act 1993 27
Multimodal Transportation of Goods Act 1993 28
Interest on Delayed Payments to Small Scale and Ancillary Industrial Undertakings Act Repealed by Act 27 of 2006 (w.e.f. date to be notified) 1993 32
Acquisition of Certain Area at Ayodhya Act 1993 33
SAARC Convention (Suppression of Terrorism) Act 1993 36
Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Amendment Act 1993 41
Central Laws (Extension to Arunachal Pradesh) Act 1993 44
Tezpur University Act 1993 45
Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act 1993 46
Betwa River Board (Amendment) Act 1993 49
Recovery of Debts Due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act 1993 51
National Commission for Safai Karamcharis Act 1993 64
Oil and Natural Gas Commission (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act 1993 65
Public Records Act 1993 69
National Council for Teacher Education Act 1993 73
Kalakshetra Foundation Act, 1993 1994 6
Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 1994 10
Air Corporations (Transfer of Undertakings and Repeal) Act 1994 13
Manipur Panchayati Raj Act 1994 26
Punjab Gram Panchayat, Samities and Zilla Parishad (Chandigarh Repeal) Act 1994 27
Transplantation of Human Organs Act 1994 42
Manipur Municipalities Act 1994 43
New Delhi Municipal Council Act 1994 44
Punjab Municipal Corporation Law (Extension to Chandigarh) Act 1994 45
Airports Authority of India Act 1994 55
Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Power Transmission System) Act 1994 56
Pre-conception and Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act 1994 57
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University Act 1994 58
Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act 1995 7
National Environment Tribunal Act 1995 27
Delhi Rent Act 1995 33
Textile Undertakings (Nationalisation) Act 1995 39
Wakf Act 1995 43
Technology Development Board Act 1995 44
Persons With Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 1996 1
Depositories Act 1996 22
Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 26
Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act 1996 27
Building and Other Construction Workers’ Welfare Cess Act 1996 28
Provisions of the Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) Act 1996 40
Maulana Azad National Urdu University Act, 1996 1997 2
Mahatama Gandhi Antarashtriya Hindi Vishwavidyalaya Act, 1996 1997 3
Industrial Reconstruction Bank (Transfer of Undertakings and Repeal) Act 1997 7
Lalitkala Akademi (Taking Over of Management) Act 1997 17
National Environment Appellate Authority Act 1997 22
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act 1997 24
Vice-President’s Pension Act 1997 30
Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) (Inapplicability to Major Ports) Act 1997 31
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Act 1998 13
Lotteries (Regulation) Act 1998 17
Leaders of Chief Whips of Recognised Parties and Groups in Parliament (Facilities) Act, 1998 1999 5
Delhi Development Authority (Validation of Disciplinary Powers) Act, 1998 1999 6
Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Repeal Act 1999 15
Central Industrial Security Force (Amendment and Validation) Act 1999 40
Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act 1999 41
Foreign Exchange Management Act 1999 42
National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disabilities Act 1999 44
Trade Marks Act 1999 47
Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act 1999 48
Mizoram University Act 2000 8
Designs Act 2000 16
Direct-Tax Laws (Miscellaneous) Repeal Act 2000 20
Information Technology Act 2000 21
Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 28
Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 29
Bihar Reorganisation Act 2000 30
Chemical Weapons Convention Act 2000 34
Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout-Design Act 2000 37
Coal India (Regulation of Transfer and Validation) Act 2000 45
Immigration (Carriers’ Liability) Act 2000 52
Central Road Fund Act 2000 54
Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act 2000 56

2001 – 2010

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Amendment) Act, 2001 2001 9
Indian Council of World Affairs Act 2001 29
Advocates’ Welfare Fund Act 2001 45
Energy Conservation Act 2001 52
Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001 2001 53
Delimitation Act 2002 33
Haj Committee Act 2002 35
Foreign Aircraft (Exemption from Taxes and Duties on Fuel and Lubricants) Act 2002 36
Multi-State Co-operative Societies Act 2002 39
Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act 2002 54
Unit Trust of India (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act 2002 58
Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act 2002 60
Consumer Protection (Amendment) Act 2002 62
Suppression of Unlawful Acts against Safety of Maritime Navigation and Fixed Platforms on Continental Shelf Act 2002 69
Competition Act, 2002 2003 12
Control of National Highways (Land and Traffic) Act, 2002 2003 13
Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002 2003 15
Offshore Areas Mineral (Development and Regulation) Act, 2002 2003 17
Biological Diversity Act, 2002 2003 18
Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act, 2003 2003 34
Electricity Act, 2003 2003 36
Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act 2003 39
Central Vigilance Commission Act 2003 45
Repatriation of Prisoners Act 2003 49
Industrial Development Bank (Transfer of Undertaking and Repeal) Act 2003 53
Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Repeal Act, 2003 2004 01
Customs and Central Excise Laws (Repeal) Act 2004 25
Prevention of Terrorism (Repeal) Act 2004 26
National Commission for Minority Educational Institutions Act, 2004 2005 02
Parel Investments and Trading Private Limited and Domestic Gas Private Limited (Taking over of Management) Repeal Act 2005 14
Weapons of Mass Destruction and Their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, 2005 2005 21
Right to Information Act 2005 22
Coastal Aquaculture Authority Act 2005 24
University of Allahabad Act 2005 26
Bihar Value Added Tax Act 2005 27
Special Economic Zones Act 2005 28
Private Security Agencies (Regulation) Act 2005 29
Credit Information Companies (Regulation) Act 2005 30
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 42
Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 2005 43
National Tax Tribunal Act 2005 49
State Emblem of India (Prohibition of Improper Use) Act, 2005 2005 50
Disaster Management Act 2005 53
Manipur University Act 2005 54
Andhra Pradesh Legislative Council Act,2005 2006 01
Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005 2006 04
Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act 2006 19
Delhi Laws (Special Provisions) Act,2006 2006 22
Cess Laws (Repealing and Amending) Act,2006 2006 24
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act,2006 2006 27
National Institute of Fashion Technology Act,2006 2006 28
Union Duties of Excise (Electricity) Distribution Repeal Act,2006 2006 30
Spirituous Preparations (Inter-State Trade And Commerce) Control (Repeal) Act, 2006 2006 32
Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 2006 34
Actuaries Act, 2006 2006 35
Government Securities Act, 2006 2006 38
Cantonments Act, 2006 2006 41
Pondicherry (Alteration of Name) Act, 2006 2006 44
Produce Cess Laws (Abolition) Act, 2006 2006 46
Assam Rifles Act, 2006 2006 47
Uttaranchal (Alteration Of Name) Act, 2006 2006 52
Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 2007 2
Dalmia Dadri Cement Limited (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Amendment Act, 2006 2007 3
Central Educational Institutions (Reservation in Admission) Act, 2006 2007 5
Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 2007 6
English and Foreign Languages University Act, 2006 2007 7
Rajiv Gandhi University Act, 2006 2007 8
Tripura University Act, 2006 2007 9
Sikkim University Act, 2006 2007 10
Sports Broadcasting Signals (Mandatory Sharing With Prasar Bharati) Act, 2007 2007 11
National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007 2007 29
Warehousing (Development and Regulation) Act, 2007 2007 37
Carriage by Road Act, 2007 2007 41
Tyre Corporation of India Limited (Disinvestment Of Ownership) Act, 2007 2007 50
Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007 2007 51
Indira Gandhi National Tribal University Act, 2007 2007 52
Sashastra Seema Bal Act, 2007 2007 53
Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology Act, 2007 2007 54
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry Act, 2008 2008 19
Indian Maritime University Act, 2008 2008 22
National Waterway (Talcher-Dhamra Stretch Of Rivers, Geonkhali-Charbatia Stretch of East Coast Canal, Charbatia-Dhamra Stretch of Matai River and Mahanadi Delta Rivers) Act, 2008 2008 23
National Waterway (Kakinada-Puducherry Stretch of Canals and the Kaluvelly Tank, Bhadrachalam-Rajahmundry Stretch of River Godavari And Wazirabad-Vijayawada Stretch of River Krishna) Act, 2008 2008 24
Airports Economic Regulatory Authority Of India Act, 2008 2008 27
Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008 2008 33
Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008 2009 4
Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008 2009 6
Collection of Statistics Act, 2008 2009 7
South Asian University Act, 2008 2009 8
Science and Engineering Research Board Act, 2008 2009 9
Central Universities Act, 2009 2009 25
Prevention and Control Of Infectious And Contagious Diseases In Animals Act, 2009 2009 27
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 2009 35
Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009 2009  
Legal Metrology Act, 2009 2010 1
Tamil Nadu Legislative Council Act, 2010 2010 16
National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 2010 19
Clinical Establishments (Registration and Regulation) Act, 2010 2010 23
Land Ports Authority of India Act, 2010 2010 31
Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010 2010 38
Nalanda University Act, 2010 2010 39
Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 2010 42

2011 – present

Name of the Act Year Act No.
Coinage Act, 2011 2011 11
Orissa (Alteration of Name) Act, 2011 2011 15
Factoring Regulation Act, 2011 2012 12
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research Act, 2011 2012 13
Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012 2012 32
Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development Act, 2012 2012 35
National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore Act, 2012 2012 38
Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 2013 14
Companies Act 2013 2013 18
National Food Security Act, 2013 2013 20
National Pension Scheme 2013 23
Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 2013 25
Rajiv Gandhi National Aviation University Act, 2013 2013 26
Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 2013 30
Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 2014 1
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 2014 6
Street Vendors Act, 2014 2014 7
Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University Act, 2014 2014 10
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Amendment) Act, 2014 2014 16
Securities Laws (Amendment) Act, 2014 2014 27
Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011 2014  
National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014 2014 96-C
Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2015 2015 36
Black Money (Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets) and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015 2015 22

IMPORTANT ACT OF INDIA

Dowry system in India

In India, Dowry (Hindi: दहेज, Dahēj) refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride’s family gives to the bridegroom, his parents, or his relatives as a condition of the marriage. It is essentially in the nature of a payment in cash or some kind of gifts given to the bridegroom’s family along with the bride and includes cash, jewellery, electrical appliances, furniture, bedding, crockery, utensils and other household items that help the newlyweds set up their home. Dowry is referred to as Jahez in Arabic (derived from Islamic jahez-e-fatimi). In far eastern parts of India, dowry is called Aaunnpot.

 

Wedding gifts of the son of the Imam of Delhi India with soldiers and 2000 guests

The dowry system is thought to put great financial burden on the bride’s family. In some cases, the dowry system leads to crime against women, ranging from emotional abuse, injury to even deaths. The payment of dowry has been prohibited under specific Indian laws including, the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 and subsequently by Sections 304B and 498A of the Indian Penal Code.

Contents

  • 1 Historical context
  • 2 Causes of the practice
    • 2.1 Economic factors
    • 2.2 Social factors
    • 2.3 Religious factors
  • 3 Dowry in the modern era
  • 4 Types of dowry crimes
    • 4.1 Cruelty
    • 4.2 Domestic violence
    • 4.3 Abetment to suicide
    • 4.4 Dowry death
  • 5 Laws against dowry
    • 5.1 Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
    • 5.2 Criminal statutes – Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code and Evidence Act
    • 5.3 Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
    • 5.4 International conventions
  • 6 Criticisms on the enforcement of dowry laws
  • 7 Criticisms on the abuse of dowry laws
  • Historical context

 

 

Wedding Procession- Bride Under a Canopy with Gifts. Circa 1800

The history of dowry in South Asia is not clear. Some scholars believe dowry was practiced in antiquity, but some do not. Historical eyewitness reports, as discussed below, suggest dowry in ancient India was insignificant, and daughters had inheritance rights, which by custom were exercised at the time of their marriage.

Stanley J.Tambiah claims the ancient Code of Manu sanctioned dowry and bridewealth in ancient India, but dowry was the more prestigious form and associated with the Brahmanic (priestly) caste. Bridewealth was restricted to the lower castes, who were not allowed to give dowry. He cites two studies from the early 20th century with data to suggest that this pattern of dowry in upper castes and bridewealth in lower castes has persisted through the first half of the 20th century. However, it is more likely that marriages involved both reciprocal gifts between the two families, claims Tambiah, so that insofar as the groom’s family gives the bridewealth, it tends to be given back as the culturally validated dowry to the bride as part of her conjugal estate.

Michael Witzel, in contrast, claims the ancient Indian literature suggests dowry practices were not significant during the Vedic period. Witzel also notes that women in ancient India had property inheritance rights either by appointment or when they had no brothers.

The findings of MacDonell and Keith are similar to Witzel, and differ from Tambiah; they cite ancient Indian literature suggesting bridewealth was paid even in brahma- and daiva-types of marriage associated with the Brahmanic (priestly) upper caste. Dowry was not infrequent when the girl suffered from some bodily defect. Property rights for women increased in ancient India, suggest MacDonell and Keith, over the Epics era (200 BC to 700 AD). Kane claims ancient literature suggests bridewealth was paid only in the asura-type of marriage that was considered reprehensible and forbidden by Manu and other ancient Indian scribes. Lochtefeld suggests that religious duties listed by Manu and others, such as ‘the bride be richly adorned to celebrate marriage’ were ceremonial dress and jewelry along with gifts that were her property, not property demanded by or meant for the groom; Lochtefeld further notes that bridal adornment is not currently considered as dowry in most people’s mind.

Above analysis by various scholars is based on interpreting verses of ancient Sanskrit fiction and inconsistent smritis from India, not eyewitness accounts. Available eyewitness observations from ancient India give a different picture. One of these are the eyewitness records from Alexander the Great conquest (ca. 300 BC) as recorded by Arrian and Megasthenes. Arrian first book mentions a lack of dowry,

They (these ancient Indian people) make their marriages accordance with this principle, for in selecting a bride they care nothing whether she has a dowry and a handsome fortune, but look only to her beauty and other advantages of the outward person.

Arrian, The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great, 3rd Century BC

Arrian’s second book similarly notes,

They (Indians) marry without either giving or taking dowries, but the women as soon as they are marriageable are brought forward by their fathers in public, to be selected by the victor in wrestling or boxing or running or someone who excels in any other manly exercise.

~ Arrian, Indika in Megasthenes and Arrian, 3rd Century BC

The two sources suggest dowry was absent, or infrequent enough to be noticed by Arrian. About 1200 years after Arrian’s visit, another eyewitness scholar visited India named Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī, also known as Al-Biruni, or Alberonius in Latin. Al-Biruni was an Islamic era Persian scholar who went and lived in India for 16 years from 1017 CE. He translated many Indian texts into Arabic, as well as wrote a memoir on Indian culture and life he observed. Al-Biruni claimed,

The implements of the wedding rejoicings are brought forward. No gift (dower or dowry) is settled between them. The man gives only a present to the wife, as he thinks fit, and a marriage gift in advance, which he has no right to claim back, but the (proposed) wife may give it back to him of her own will (if she does not want to marry).

~ Al-Biruni, Chapter on Matrimony in India, about 1035 AD

Al-Biruni further claims that a daughter, in 11th century India, had legal right to inherit from her father, but only a fourth part of her brother. The daughter took this inheritance amount with her when she married, claimed Al-Biruni, and she had no rights to income from her parents after her marriage or to any additional inheritance after her father’s death. If her father died before her marriage, her guardian would first pay off her father’s debt, then allocate a fourth of the remaining wealth to her upkeep till she is ready to marry, and then give the rest to her to take with her into her married life. It is unclear what happened to these daughter’s inheritance laws in India after Al-Biruni’s visit to India in the 11th century. It is also unclear when, why and how quickly the practice of dowry demand by grooms began, whether this happened after the arrival of Islam in the late 11th century, or with the arrival of colonialism in the 16th century, or both.

Causes of the practice

Various reasons have been suggested as cause of dowry practice in India. These include economic factors and social factors.

Economic factors

There are many economic factors that contribute towards the system of dowry. Some of these include inheritance systems and the bride’s economic status.

Some suggestions point to economics and weak legal institutions on inheritance place women in disadvantage, with inheritances being left only to sons. This leaves women dependent upon their husbands and in-laws, who keep the dowry when she marries. Prior to 1956, including during the British Raj, daughters had no rights of inheritance to their family’s wealth. In 1956, India gave equal legal status to daughters and sons among Hindu, Sikh and Jain families, under the Hindu Succession Act (India grants its Muslim population the Sharia derived personal status laws). Despite the new inheritance law, dowry has continued as a process whereby parental property is distributed to a daughter at her marriage by a social process, rather than after parents death by a slow court supervised process under Hindu Succession Act (1956).

Dowry gave, at least in theory, women economic and financial security in their marriage in the form of movable goods. This helped prevent family wealth break-up and provided security to the bride at the same time. This system can also be used as a premortem inheritance, as once a woman is presented with movable gifts, she may be cut off from the family estate.

For many, dowry has become a greater financial burden on the family, and can leave families destitute based on the demands from the groom. The demand for dowry has increased over time.

Social factors

The structure and kinship of marriage in parts of India contributes to dowry. In the north, marriage usually follows a patrilocal (lives with husband’s family) system, where the groom is a non-related member of the family. This system encourages dowry perhaps due to the exclusion of the bride’s family after marriage as a form of premortem inheritance for the bride. In the south, marriage is more often conducted within the bride’s family, for example with close relatives or cross-cousins, and in a closer physical distance to her family. In addition, brides may have the ability to inherit land, which makes her more valuable in the marriage, decreasing the chance of dowry over the bride price system.

In addition to marriage customs that may influence dowry, social customs or rituals, and parents expectations of dowry are important factors to consider. A 1995 study showed that while attitudes of people are changing about dowry, dowry continues to prevail. In a 1980 study conducted by Rao, 75% of students responded that dowry was not important to marriage, but 40% of their parents’ likely expected dowry.

While India has been making progress for women’s rights, women continue to be in a subordinate status in their family. Women’s education, income, and health are some significant factors that play into the dowry system, and for how much control a woman has over her marriage.

Religious factors

Dowry in India is not limited to any specific religion. It is widespread among Hindus and other religions. For example, Indian Muslims call dowry as jahez, justify the practice in terms of jahez-e-fatimi. Islamists classify jahez into two categories: The first comprises some essential articles for the outfit of the bride as well as for conjugal life. The other is made up of valuable goods, clothes, jewelry, an amount of money for the groom’s family, which is settled on after bargaining. The jahez often far exceeds the cost of the baraat and marriage parties. The jahez is separate from cash payment as Mahr or dower that Sharia religious law requires.

Dowry in the modern era

 

A social awareness campaign in India on dowry

Dowry has been a prevalent practice in India’s modern era and in this context, it can be in the form of a payment of cash or gifts from the bride’s family to the bridegroom’s family upon marriage. There are variations on dowry prevalence based on geography and class. States in the north are more likely to participate in the dowry system among all classes, and dowry is more likely to be in the form of material and movable goods. In the south, the bride price system is more prevalent, and is more often in the form of land, or other inheritance goods. This system is tied to the social structure of marriage, which keeps marriage inside or close to family relations.

Dowry also varies by economic strata in India. Upper-class families are more likely to engage in the dowry system than the lower class. This could be in part due to women’s economic exclusion from the labor market in upper classes.

When dowry evolved in the Vedic period, it was essentially followed by the upper castes to benefit the bride, who was unable to inherit property under Hindu law. To counter this, the bride’s family provided the groom with dowry which would be registered in the bride’s name.  This dowry was seen as stridhan (Sanskrit: woman’s property). Also, an important distinction is the fact that while the upper castes practiced dowry, the lower castes practiced bride price to compensate her family for the loss of income. In the modern era, the concept of dowry has evolved and Indian families no longer practice the traditional Vedic concept of dowry. This is because with the passage of time, bride price gradually disappeared and dowry became the prevalent form of transfer. In the modern era, the practice of dowry requires the bride’s family to transfer goods to the groom’s family in consideration for the marriage.

Since marriages in India are a time for big celebrations in each family, they tend to be very lavish. Accordingly, Indian weddings usually involve considerable expenditure and accompanying wedding presents from relatives in both sides of the family. This is normal expenditure which is done willingly and varies from one family to another depending on the wealth, status, etc. Many times, as part of this mutual ‘give-and-take’, an attempt is made by the groom’s family to dictate the quantum of each gift along with specific demands for dowry. In such circumstances, there is an element of exerting coercion on the bride’s family and this is what has come to be recognized as the menace of dowry in today’s times. Dowry does not refer to the voluntary presents which are made to the bride and the groom; rather it is what is extracted from the bride or her parents.

Types of dowry crimes

Recently married women can be a target for dowry related violence because she is tied economically and socially to her new husband. In some cases, dowry is used as a threat or hostage type situation, in order to extract more property from the bride’s family This can be seen in new brides, who are most vulnerable in the situation. Dowry crimes can occur with the threat or occurrence of violence, so that the bride’s family is left with no choice but to give more dowry to protect their daughter. The northern and eastern states of India show higher rates of dowry-related violence.

Dowry is considered a major contributor towards observed violence against women in India. Some of these offences include physical violence, emotional abuses, and even murder of brides and young girls prior to marriage. The predominant types of dowry crimes relate to cruelty (which includes torture and harassment), domestic violence (including physical, emotional and sexual assault), abetment to suicide and dowry death (including, issues of bride burning and murder).

Cruelty

Cruelty in the form of torture or harassment of a woman with the objective of forcing her to meet a demand for property or valuable security is a form of dowry crime. Such cruelty could just be in the form of verbal attacks or may be accompanied by beating or harassment in order to force the woman or her family to yield to dowry demands. In many instances, such cruelty may even force the woman to commit suicide and it has been specifically criminalized by the anti-dowry laws in India.

Where as the cruelty on wife is well recognized and defined by law, the same actions when committed on husband – do not constitute Cruelty. For example, if wife pressurizes husband to move to Separate House, buy her gold ornaments and gifts for every occasion OR forces him to buy a house, these things are never termed OR recognized as Cruelty on husband – even if they are out of husbands earning capacity. Husband does not have any remedy when the demands of the wife go beyond a reasonable threshold.

Domestic violence

Main article: Domestic violence in India

Domestic violence includes a broad spectrum of abusive and threatening behavior which includes physical, emotional, economic and sexual violence as well as intimidation, isolation and coercion. There are laws like the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005 that help to reduce domestic violence and to protect women’s rights.

Abetment to suicide

Continuing abuse by the husband and his family with threats of harm could lead to a woman committing suicide. In such situations, the dowry crime even extends to abetment of suicide, which includes all acts and attempts to intentionally advise, encourage, or assist in committing suicide. The impact of dowry can leave a woman helpless and desperate, which can cumulate in emotional trauma and abuse. Dowry related abuse causes emotional trauma, depression and suicide. The offence of abetment to suicide is significant because in many cases, the accused persons often bring up a defense that the victim committed suicide at her own volition, even though this may not be true in reality.

Dowry death

Dowry deaths relate to a bride’s suicide or murder committed by her husband and his family soon after the marriage because of their dissatisfaction with the dowry. Most dowry deaths occur when the young woman, unable to bear the harassment and torture, commits suicide by hanging herself or consuming poison. Dowry deaths also include bride burning where brides are doused in kerosene and set ablaze by the husband or his family. Sometimes, due to their abetment to commit suicide, the bride may end up setting herself on fire. Bride burnings are often disguised as accidents or suicide attempts. Bride burnings are the most common forms of dowry deaths for a wide range of reasons like kerosene being inexpensive, there being insufficient evidence after the murder and low chances of survival rate. Apart from bride burning, there are some instances of poisoning, strangulation, acid attacks, etc., as a result of which brides are murdered by the groom’s family.

India, with its large population, reports the highest number of dowry related deaths in the world according to Indian National Crime Record Bureau. In 2012, 8,233 dowry death cases were reported across India, while in 2013, 8,083 dowry deaths were reported. This means a dowry-related crime causes the death of a woman every 90 minutes, or 1.4 deaths per year per 100,000 women in India. For contextual reference, the United Nations reports a worldwide average female homicide rate of 3.6 per 100,000 women, and an average of 1.6 homicides per 100,000 women for Northern Europe in 2012.

Laws against dowry

The first all-India legislative enactment relating to dowry to be put on the statute book was the The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 and this legislation came into force from July 1, 1961. It marked the beginning of a new legal framework of dowry harassment laws effectively prohibiting the demanding, giving and taking of dowry. Although providing dowry is illegal, it is still common in many parts of India for a husband to seek a dowry from the wife’s family and in some cases, this results in a form of extortion and violence against the wife. To further strengthen the anti-dowry law and to stop offences of cruelty by the husband or his relatives against the wife, new provisions were added to the Indian criminal law – section 498A to Indian Penal Code and section 198A to the Criminal Procedure Code in 1983. In 2005, the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act was passed, which added an additional layer of protection from dowry harassment.

Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961

The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 consolidated the anti-dowry laws which had been passed on certain states. This legislation provides for a penalty in section 3 if any person gives, takes or abets giving or receiving of dowry. The punishment could be imprisonment for a term not less than 5 years and a fine not less than ₹15,000 or the value of the dowry received, whichever is higher. Dowry in the Act is defined as any property or valuable security given or agreed to be given in connection with the marriage. The penalty for giving or taking dowry is not applicable in case of presents which are given at the time of marriage without any demand having been made. Similarly, section 4 of the Act provides the penalty for directly or indirectly demanding dowry and provides for a penalty involving a prison term of not less than 6 months and extendable up to two years along with a fine of ₹10,000. Dowry agreements are void ab initio and if any dowry is received by anyone other than the woman, it should be transferred to the woman. The burden of proving that an offense was not committed is on the persons charged and not on the victim or her family. Under its powers to frame rules for carrying out its objectives under the Act, the government of India has framed the Maintenance of Lists of Presents to the Bride and the Bridegroom Rules, 1985. There are also several state level amendments to the Dowry Prohibition Act.

Criminal statutes – Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code and Evidence Act

The Indian criminal laws were comprehensively amended to include dowry as a punishable offence. Section 304B was added to the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (“IPC”), which made dowry death a specific offence punishable with a minimum sentence of imprisonment for 7 years and a maximum imprisonment for life. It provided that if the death of a woman is caused by burns or bodily injury or occurs in suspicious circumstances within 7 years of her marriage, and there’s evidence to show that before her death, she was subjected to cruelty or harassment by her husband or his relative regarding the demand for dowry, then the husband or the relative shall be deemed to have caused her death. Further, section 113B of the Evidence Act, 1872 (“Evidence Act”), creates an additional presumption of dowry death when it is shown that before her death, the woman had been subjected to cruelty on account of dowry demand. Section 304B IPC along with Section 113B of the Evidence Act have enabled the conviction of many who were not caught by the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961. Section 113A of the Evidence Act provides a similar presumption of abetment of suicide (which is an offense under Section 306 IPC), in case of death of a married woman within a period of seven years of her marriage.

Additionally, the judiciary also includes a murder charge under Section 302 IPC as this allows courts to impose death penalty on perpetrators of the offence. Section 406 IPC, pertaining to offences for the criminal breach of trust, applies in cases of recovery of dowry as it is supposed to be for the benefit of the woman and her heirs.

Further, Section 498A IPC was specifically included in 1983 to protect women from cruelty and harassment. The constitutionality of Section 498A was challenged before the Supreme Court of India on grounds of abuse, on grounds that it gave arbitrary power to the police and the court. However, it was upheld in Sushil Kumar Sharma v. Union of India (2005). The Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 provides that for the prosecution of offences under Section 498A IPC, the courts can only take cognizance only when it receives a report of the facts from the police or upon a complaint being made by the victim or her family.

Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

Main article: Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 (“Domestic Violence Act”) was passed in order to provide a civil law remedy for the protection of women from domestic violence in India. The Domestic Violence Act encompasses all forms of physical, verbal, emotional, economic and sexual abuse and forms a subset of the anti-dowry laws to the extent it is one of the reasons for domestic violence. Section 3 of the Domestic Violence Act specifically incorporates all forms of harassment, injury and harms inflicted to coerce a woman to meet an unlawful demand for dowry. Some of the common remedies under the Domestic Violence Act include:

  • protection orders – prohibiting a person from committing domestic violence;
  • residence orders – dispossessing such person from a shared household;
  • custody orders – granting custody of a child; and
  • compensation orders – directing payment of compensation.

International conventions

India is a party to several international human rights instruments which provide theoretical remedies to the dowry problems. These international conventions include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (“UDHR”), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“ICCPR”), the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (“ICESCR”), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (“CEDAW”), and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (“CRC”). CEDAW codifies the rights most relevant to the discussion of dowry-related violence: the rights of women. However, there are issues of non-intervention and cultural relativism which impede the use of international law to combat dowry deaths.

Criticisms on the enforcement of dowry laws

Although the changes in Indian criminal law reflects a serious effort by legislators to put an end to dowry-related crimes, and although they have been in effect for many years now, they have been largely criticised as being ineffective. Despite the Indian government’s efforts, the practice of dowry deaths and murders continues to take place unchecked in many parts of the country and this has further added to the concerns of enforcement. There is criticism by women’s groups that India’s dowry harassment laws are ineffective because the statutes are too vague, the police and the courts do not enforce the laws and social mores keep women subservient and docile, giving them a subordinate status in the society. Further, many women are afraid to implicate their husbands in a dowry crime simply because the Indian society is viewed as having conditioned women to anticipate or expect abuse and in some sense eventually, endure it. While the laws give great powers, they are not effectively enforced by the police or by courts. It can take up to 10 years for a case to go to court and even once in court, husbands and in-laws end up getting away with extortion or even murder because the women and their families cannot prove ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ that they are the victims of such crimes, as there are rarely any outside witnesses. Moreover, when deaths occur through bride burning, evidence itself is usually lost in flames.

Criticisms on the abuse of dowry laws

There is growing criticism that the dowry laws are often being misused, particularly section 498A IPC which is observed by many in India as being prone to misuse because of mechanical arrests by the police. According to the National Crime Records Bureau statistics, in 2012, nearly 200,000 people including 47,951 women, were arrested in regard to dowry offences. However, only 15% of the accused were convicted.

In many cases of 498a, huge amounts of dowry are claimed without any valid reasoning. A rickshaw puller’s wife can allege that she gave crore’s of money as dowry and since it is a cognizable case, police are bound to register the case. And in most cases, the capacity of the wife or her parents and the source of the funds are never tracked.

Section 498A IPC was challenged but upheld by the Supreme Court of India in 2005. In 2010, the Supreme Court lamented about the possible misuse of anti-dowry laws in Preeti Gupta & Another v. State of Jharkhand & Another and recommended a detailed investigation. Based on the Supreme Court’s observations, the Indian parliament set up a committee headed by Bhagat Singh Koshyari. In July 2014, in the case of Arnesh Kumar v. State of Bihar & Anr., a two-judge bench of the Supreme Court reviewed the enforcement of section 41(1)(A) of CrPC which instructs state of following certain procedure before arrest, and went on to observe that the 498A had become a powerful weapon in the hands of disgruntled wives where innocent people were arrested without any evidence due to non-bailable and cognizable nature of the law. The decision received criticism from feminists because it weakened the negotiating power of women. Others welcomed the decision as landmark judgment to uphold the human rights of innocent people.

On April 19, 2015, the Indian government sought to introduce a bill to amend Section 498A IPC based on the suggestions of the Law Commission and Justice Malimath committee on reforms of criminal justice. News reports indicate that the proposed amendment will make the offence compoundable and this would facilitate couples to settle their disputes.

Right to Information Act, 2005

This article is about the Indian federal law.

 
Citation Act No. 22 of 2005
Territorial extent Whole of India except Jammu and Kashmir
Enacted by Parliament of India
Date enacted 15-June-2005
Date assented to 22-June-2005
Date commenced 12-October-2005

First RTI application submitted by Shahid Raza Burney to a police station in Pune on 12 October 2005

Status: In force

The Right to Information Act (RTI) is an Act of the Parliament of India “to provide for setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens” and replaces the erstwhile Freedom of information Act, 2002. Under the provisions of the Act, any citizen may request information from a “public authority” (a body of Government or “instrumentality of State”) which is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days. The Act also requires every public authority to computerise their records for wide dissemination and to proactively certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for information formally. This law was passed by Parliament on 15 June 2005 and came fully into force on 12 October 2005. The first application was given to a Pune police station. Information disclosure in India was restricted by the Official Secrets Act 1923 and various other special laws, which the new RTI Act relaxes. It codifies a fundamental right of citizens.

Contents

  • 1 Background of act
    • 1.1 Freedom of Information Act 2002
    • 1.2 State-level RTI Acts
  • 2 Scope
    • 2.1 Private bodies
    • 2.2 Political parties
  • 3 Process
  • 4 Fees
  • 5 Exclusions
    • 5.1 Information Exclusions

Background of act

Freedom of Information Act 2002

The establishment of a national-level law for freedom of information proved to be a difficult task. The Central Government appointed a working group under H. D. Shourie and assigned it the task of drafting legislation. The Shourie draft, was the basis for the Freedom of Information Bill, 2000 which eventually became law under the Freedom of Information Act, 2002. This Act was severely criticised for permitting too many exemptions, not only under the standard grounds of national security and sovereignty, but also for requests that would involve “disproportionate diversion of the resources of a public authority”. There was no upper limit on the charges that could be levied. There were no penalties. The Act was passed by Parliament, but was never notified, so it did not attain legal force.

State-level RTI Acts

The state-level RTI Acts were first successfully enacted by the state governments of Tamil Nadu (1997), Goa (1997), Rajasthan (2000), Delhi (2001), Maharashtra (2002), Assam (2002), Madhya Pradesh (2003), Jammu and Kashmir (2004), Haryana (2005) and Andhra Pradesh(2005).

Scope

The Act covers the whole of India except Jammu and Kashmir, where J&K Right to Information Act is in force. It covers all constitutional authorities, including the executive, legislature and judiciary; any institution or body established or constituted by an act of Parliament or a state legislature. It is also defined in the Act that bodies or authorities established or constituted by order or notification of appropriate government including bodies “owned, controlled or substantially financed” by government, or non-Government organizations “substantially financed, directly or indirectly by funds” provided by the government are also covered in the Act.

Private bodies

Private bodies are not within the Act’s ambit directly. In a decision of Sarbjit roy vs Delhi Electricity Regulatory Commission, the Central Information Commission also reaffirmed that privatised public utility companies are not applicable for RTI. As of 2014, private institutions and NGOs receiving over 95% of their infrastructure funds from the government come under the Act.

Political parties

The Central Information Commission (CIC), consisting of Satyanand Mishra, M.L. Sharma and Annapurna Dixit, has held that the political parties are public authorities and are answerable to citizens under the RTI Act. The CIC, a quasi-judicial body, has said that six national parties – Congress, BJP, NCP, CPI(M), CPI and BSP and BJD – have been substantially funded indirectly by the Central Government and have the character of public authorities under the RTI Act as they perform public functions In August 2013 the government introduced a Right To Information (Amendment) Bill which would remove political parties from the scope of the law. In September 2013 the Bill was deferred to the Winter Session of Parliament. In December 2013 the Standing Committee on Law and Personnel said in its report tabled in Parliament

“The committee considers the proposed amendment is a right step to address the issue once and for all. The committee, therefore, recommends for passing of the Bill.”

Process

The RTI process involves reactive (as opposed to proactive) disclosure of information by the authorities. An RTI request initiates the process.

Each authority covered by the RTI Act must appoint their Public Information Officer (PIO). Any person may submit a written request to the PIO for information. It is the PIO’s obligation to provide information to citizens of India who request information under the Act. If the request pertains to another public authority (in whole or part), it is the PIO’s responsibility to transfer/forward the concerned portions of the request to a PIO of the other authority within 5 working days. In addition, every public authority is required to designate Assistant Public Information Officers (APIOs) to receive RTI requests and appeals for forwarding to the PIOs of their public authority. The applicant is required to disclose his name and contact particulars but not any other reasons or justification for seeking information.

The Central Information Commission (CIC) acts upon complaints from those individuals who have not been able to submit information requests to a Central Public Information Officer or State Public Information Officer due to either the officer not having been appointed, or because the respective Central Assistant Public Information Officer or State Assistant Public Information Officer refused to receive the application for information.

The Act specifies time limits for replying to the request.

  • If the request has been made to the PIO, the reply is to be given within 30 days of receipt.
  • If the request has been made to an APIO, the reply is to be given within 35 days of receipt.
  • If the PIO transfers the request to another public authority (better concerned with the information requested), the time allowed to reply is 30 days but computed from the day after it is received by the PIO of the transferee authority.
  • Information concerning corruption and Human Rights violations by scheduled Security agencies (those listed in the Second Schedule to the Act) is to be provided within 45 days but with the prior approval of the Central Information Commission.
  • However, if life or liberty of any person is involved, the PIO is expected to reply within 48 hours.

Since the information is to be paid for, the reply of the PIO is necessarily limited to either denying the request (in whole or part) and/or providing a computation of “further fees”. The time between the reply of the PIO and the time taken to deposit the further fees for information is excluded from the time allowed. If information is not provided within this period, it is treated as deemed refusal. Refusal with or without reasons may be ground for appeal or complaint. Further, information not provided in the times prescribed is to be provided free of charge. Appeal processes are also defined.

Fees

A citizen who desires to seek some information from a public authority is required to send, along with the application, a demand draft or a bankers cheque or an Indian Postal Order of Rs.10/- (Rupees ten) payable to the Accounts Officer of the public authority as fee prescribed for seeking information

The applicant may also be required to pay further fee towards the cost of providing the information, details of which shall be intimated to the applicant by the PIO as prescribed by the RTI ACT

Exclusions

Central Intelligence and Security agencies specified in the Second Schedule like IB,Directorate General of Income tax(Investigation), RAW, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Central Economic Intelligence Bureau, Directorate of Enforcement, Narcotics Control Bureau, Aviation Research Centre, Special Frontier Force, BSF, CRPF, ITBP, CISF, NSG, Assam Rifles, Special Service Bureau, Special Branch (CID), Andaman and Nicobar, The Crime Branch-CID-CB, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Special Branch, Lakshadweep Police etc. will be excluded. Agencies specified by the State Governments through a Notification will also be excluded. The exclusion, however, is not absolute and these organizations have an obligation to provide information pertaining to allegations of corruption and human rights violations. Further, information relating to allegations of human rights violation could be given but only with the approval of the Central or State Information Commission.

Information Exclusions

The following is exempt from disclosure under section 8 of the Act:-

  • Information, disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security, “strategic, scientific or economic” interests of the State, relation with foreign State or lead to incitement of an offense;
  • Information which has been expressly forbidden to be published by any court of law or tribunal or the disclosure of which may constitute contempt of court;
  • Information, the disclosure of which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature;
  • Information including commercial confidence, trade secrets or intellectual property, the disclosure of which would harm the competitive position of a third party, unless the competent authority is satisfied that larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
  • Information available to a person in his fiduciary relationship, unless the competent authority is satisfied that the larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
  • Information received in confidence from foreign Government;
  • Information, the disclosure of which would endanger the life or physical safety of any person or identify the source of information or assistance given in confidence for law enforcement or security purposes;
  • Information which would impede the process of investigation or apprehension or prosecution of offenders;
  • Cabinet papers including records of deliberations of the Council of Ministers, Secretaries and other officers;
  • Information which relates to personal information the disclosure of which has no relationship to any public activity or interest, or which would cause unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual (but it is also provided that the information which cannot be denied to the Parliament or a State Legislature shall not be denied by this exemption);

Notwithstanding any of the exemptions listed above, a public authority may allow access to information, if public interest in disclosure outweighs the harm to the protected interests. However, this does not apply to disclosure of “trade or commercial secrets protected by law “.

National Green Tribunal Act

 

Citation Act No. 19 of 2010
Enacted by Parliament of India
Date enacted 5 May 2010
Date assented to 2 June 2010
Legislative history
Bill published on 31 July 2009
Committee report 24 November 2009

 

National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 (NGT) is an Act of the Parliament of India which enables creation of a special tribunal to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues. It was enacted under India’s constitutional provision of Article 21, which assures the citizens of India the right to a healthy environment.

Contents

  • 1 Definition
  • 2 Origin
  • 3 Members
  • 4 Jurisdiction
  • 5 Notable orders
    • 5.1 Yamuna Conservation Zone
    • 5.2 Coal Blocks in Chhattisgarh Forests
    • 5.3 Ban on decade old Diesel vehicles at Delhi NCR

Definition

The legislate Act of Parliament defines the National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 as follows,

“An Act to provide for the establishment of a National Green Tribunal for the effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages to persons and property and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto”.

On 18 October 2010, Justice Lokeshwar Singh Panta became its first Chairman. Currently it is chaired by Justice Swatanter Kumar since 20 Dec 2012.

The Tribunal’s dedicated jurisdiction in environmental matters shall provide speedy environmental justice and help reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice. The Tribunal is mandated to make and endeavour for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same.Initially, the NGT is proposed to be set up at five places of sittings and will follow circuit procedure for making itself more accessible; New Delhi is the Principal Place of Sitting of the Tribunal and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai shall be the other 4 place of sitting of the Tribunal.

Origin

During the Rio de Janeiro summit of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June 1992, India vowed the participating states to provide judicial and administrative remedies for the victims of the pollutants and other environmental damage.

There lie many reasons behind the setting up of this tribunal. After India’s move with Carbon credits, such tribunal may play a vital role in ensuring the control of emissions and maintaining the desired levels. This is the first body of its kind that is required by its parent statute to apply the “polluter pays” principle and the principle of sustainable development.

This court can rightly be called ‘special’ because India is the third country following Australia and New Zealand to have such a system.

Members

The sanctioned strength of the tribunal is currently 10 expert members and 10 judicial members although the act allows for up to 20 of each. The Chairman of the tribunal who is the administrative head of the tribunal also serves as a judicial member. Every bench of tribunal must consist of at least one expert member and one judicial member. The Chairman of the tribunal is required to be a serving or retired Chief Justice of a High Court or a judge of the Supreme Court of India. Members are chosen by a selection committee (headed by a sitting judge of the Supreme Court of India) that reviews their applications and conducts interviews. The Judicial members are chosen from applicants who are serving or retired judges of High Courts. Expert members are chosen from applicants who are either serving or retired bureaucrats not below the rank of an Additional Secretary to the Government of India (not below the rank of Principal Secretary if serving under a state government) with a minimum administrative experience of five years in dealing with environmental matters. Or, the expert members must have a doctorate in a related field.

Jurisdiction

The Tribunal has Original Jurisdiction on matters of “substantial question relating to environment” (i.e. a community at large is affected, damage to public health at broader level) & “damage to environment due to specific activity” (such as pollution). However there is no specific method is defined in Law for determining “substantial” damage to environment, property or public health. There is restricted access to an individual only if damage to environment is substantial. The powers of tribunal related to an award are equivalent to Civil court and tribunal may transmit any order/award to civil court have local jurisdiction.however, the tribunal doesnot follow civil law. it follows principles of natural justiceThe Bill specifies that an application for dispute related to environment can be filled within six months only when first time dispute arose (provide tribunal can accept application after 60 days if it is satisfied that appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from filling the application).

Also Tribunal is competent to hear cases for several acts such as Forest (Conservation) Act, Biological Diversity Act, Environment (Protection) Act, Water & Air (Prevention & control of Pollution) Acts etc. and also have appellate jurisdiction related to above acts after establishment of Tribunal within a period of 30 days of award or order received by aggrieved party. The Bill says that decision taken by majority of members shall be binding and every order of Tribunal shall be final. Any person aggrieved by an award, decision, or order of the Tribunal may appeal to the Supreme Court within 90 days of commencement of award but Supreme Court can entertain appeal even after 90 days if appellant satisfied SC by giving sufficient reasons.

Notable orders

Yamuna Conservation Zone

On 25 April 2014, The NGT said that the health of Yamuna will be affected by the proposed recreational facilities on the river. The NGT also recommended the Government to declare a 52 km stretch of the Yamuna in Delhi and Uttar Pradesh as a conservation zone.

Coal Blocks in Chhattisgarh Forests

The National Green Tribunal has cancelled the clearance given by the then Union Environment and Forests Minister, Jairam Ramesh, to the Parsa East and Kante-Basan captive coal blocks in the Hasdeo-Arand forests of Chhattisgarh, overruling the statutory Forest Advisory Committee.

The forest clearance was given by Mr. Ramesh in June 2011, overriding the advice of the Ministry’s expert panel on the two blocks for mining by a joint venture between Adani and Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited. The blocks requiring 1,989 hectares of forestland fell in an area that the government had initially barred as it was considered a patch of valuable forest and demarcated as a ‘no-go’ area.

The order is bound to have a more far-reaching impact, with the tribunal holding that “mere expression of fanciful reasons relating to environmental concerns without any basis, scientific study or past experience would not render the advice of FAC — a body of experts — inconsequential. Under the Forest Conservation Act, 1980, the FAC is required to appraise projects that require forestlands and advise the Environment Ministry to grant approval or reject the proposals.

But in this case, the NGT noted, the Minister had taken all of one day and relied upon his “understanding and belief” without any “basis either in any authoritative study or experience in the relevant fields.” The Minister, while clearing the coal blocks, had given six reasons for doing so, including that the coal blocks are linked to super-critical thermal power plant, which is imperative to sustain the momentum generated in the XI Plan for increasing power production. These ‘anthropocentric’ considerations, the NGT held, were not valid to evaluate the project.

Ban on decade old Diesel vehicles at Delhi NCR

An attempt to minimize air pollution at capital of India and NCR. PM 2.5 particles have reached alarming level. As per this order, 10 yrs old vehicles are not allowed to ply. However, as per Media report, central Government exploring to appeal against the order at Supreme Court, especially for personal vehicles.

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013

(Redirected from Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013)

This article is about The Lokpal Act, 2013. For Lokpal, an article containing general purpose definition and the Jan Lokpal Bill in particular, see Lokpal. For Jan Lokpal Bill, a draft anti-corruption bill written by the civil society group, India Against Corruption, see Jan Lokpal Bill.

 

 

Citation 134-C of 2011
Territorial extent India
Enacted by Rajya Sabha
Date passed 17 December 2013
Enacted by Lok Sabha
Date passed 18 December 2013
Date assented to 1 January 2014
Signed by Pranab Mukherjee
Date commenced 16 January 2014
Status: In force

 

Title: The Lokpal Bill, 2011 (Lok Sabha) The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011 (Rajya Sabha)
History: Introduced in Lok Sabha on 4 August 2011.

Referred to The Parliament’s Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances and Law and Justice on 8 August 2011.

Re-introduced in Lok Sabha on 22 December 2011.
Passed by Lok Sabha on 27 December 2011.

Introduced in Rajya Sabha on 29 December 2011.

Re-introduced in Rajya Sabha on 21 May 2012.

Referred to The Select Committee of the Rajya Sabha on 21 May 2012.
The bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha on 17 December 2013 and in the Lok Sabha on 18 December 2013.

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013, commonly known as The Lokpal Act, is an anti-corruption Act of Indian Parliament in India which “seeks to provide for the establishment of the institution of Lokpal to inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries and for matters connecting them”.

The Bill was tabled in the Lok Sabha on 22 December 2011 and was passed by the House on 27 December as The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011. It was subsequently tabled in the Rajya Sabha on 29 December. After a marathon debate that stretched until midnight of the following day, the vote failed to take place for lack of time. On 21 May 2012, it was referred to a Select Committee of the Rajya Sabha for consideration. It was passed in the Rajya Sabha on 17 December 2013 after making certain amendments to the earlier Bill and in the Lok Sabha the next day. It received assent from President Pranab Mukherjee on 1 January 2014 and came into force from 16 January.

The Bill was introduced in the parliament following massive public protests led by anti-corruption crusader Anna Hazare and his associates. The Bill is one of the most widely discussed and debated Bills in India, both by the media and the People of India at large, in recent times. The protests were named among the “Top 10 News Stories of 2011” by the magazine Time. The bill received worldwide media coverage.

In 2011, India ranked 95th in the Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International. A recent survey estimated that corruption in India had cost billions of dollars and threatened to derail growth. India lost a staggering $462 billion in illicit financial flows due to tax evasion, crime and corruption post-Independence, according to a report released by Washington-based Global Financial Integrity.

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 History
    • 2.1 2010 draft bill
    • 2.2 Joint draft bill
      • 2.2.1 First draft meeting
      • 2.2.2 Second draft meeting
      • 2.2.3 Third draft meeting
      • 2.2.4 Fourth draft meeting
      • 2.2.5 Fifth draft meeting
      • 2.2.6 Sixth draft meeting
      • 2.2.7 Seventh draft meeting
    • 2.3 Union Cabinet approved bill
    • 2.4 Standing Committee bill
  • 3 Enactment by the Lok Sabha
  • 4 Journey through The Rajya Sabha
    • 4.1 Winter session, 2011
    • 4.2 Budget session, 2012
    • 4.3 Monsoon session, 2012

Background

The term Lokpal was coined in 1963 by Laxmi Mall Singhvi, a member of parliament during a parliamentary debate about grievance mechanisms. The Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) headed by Morarji Desai submitted an interim report on “Problems of Redressal of Citizen’s Grievances” in 1966. In this report, ARC recommended the creation of two special authorities designated as ‘Lokpal’ and ‘Lokayukta’ for redress of citizens’ grievances. The word was derived from the Sanskrit words “Lok” (people) and “Pala” (protector/caretaker), meaning ‘Caretaker of People’.

Maharashtra was the first state to introduce Lokayukta through The Maharashtra Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayuktas Act in 1971. Presently, there are no Lokayuktas in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and West Bengal.

The Lokpal bill was first introduced in the Lok Sabha in 1968. The version enacted in 2013 was from a draft prepared in 2010. The bill is an implementation of the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. Eleven parliamentary panels have been formed to discuss the Lokpal bill.

Recurring cost of lokpal over the years
Year Cost of lokpal (recurring) Status of bill
1968 Rs. 300,000 The Fourth Lok Sabha dissolved before the bill could be passed by the Rajya Sabha. The bill lapsed.
1971 Rs. 2 million This bill lapsed on dissolution of the Fifth Lok Sabha.
1977 Rs. 2.5 million The Sixth Lok Sabha dissolved just before the recommendations of the Joint Select Committee could be considered.
1985 Rs. 2.5 million This bill was withdrawn by the government.
1989 Rs. 3.5 million This bill lapsed on dissolution of the Ninth Lok Sabha.
1996 Rs. 10 million The Standing Committee presented its report to Parliament on 9 May 1996. However, the Lok Sabha was dissolved before government could finalise its stand.
1998 Rs. 10 million The Twelfth Lok Sabha was dissolved before government could take a view on the recommendations made by The Parliamentary Standing Committee.
2001 Rs. 15 million The Lok Sabha was dissolved. Hence, the bill lapsed.
2011/2012 The Government’s version of Lokpal does not have any financial memorandum. Passed by the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha passed the bill on 17 December 2013. Lok sabha passed the bill on 18 December 2013.

History

2010 draft bill

 

Anna Hazare’s hunger strike at Jantar Mantar in New Delhi

The 2010 draft was created by the United Progressive Alliance to create an Ombudsman tasked with tackling political corruption. The draft was circulated to various ministries for their review. It provided a mechanism for filing complaints against the prime minister, ministers and MPs. However, civil society groups were not and rejected it as a toothless body with only recommendatory powers.

Hazare started an indefinite hunger strike on 5 April 2011 to pressure the government to create an ombudsman with the power to deal with corruption in public places as envisaged in the Jan Lokpal Bill. The fast led to nationwide protests in support. The fast ended on 9 April, one day after the government accepted his demands. The government issued a gazette notification on the formation of a joint committee, consisting of government and civil society representatives, to draft the legislation.

Joint draft bill

A Joint Drafting Committee was established, consisting of five ministers and five members of the civil society. The chairman of the Joint Drafting Committee was Pranab Mukherjee. The Committee set 30 June 2011 as the deadline to complete the drafting process.

Ten member Joint Drafting Committee
Member Name Party
Pranab Mukherjee Union Minister of Finance
P. Chidambaram Union Minister of Home Affairs
M. Veerappa Moily Union Minister of Law and Justice
Kapil Sibal Minister of Communication and Information Technology
Salman Khursheed Union Minister of Water Resources
Anna Hazare Civil society
N. Santosh Hegde Civil Society, Retired Judge Supreme Court of India
Shanti Bhushan Civil Society, Former Union Minister of Law and Justice
Prashant Bhushan Civil Society
Arvind Kejriwal Civil Society

First draft meeting

 

All of the Joint Draft meetings took place at the North Block

The Committee first met on 16 April in 2011, in the North Block and lasted for about ninety minutes. Team Anna presented their version of the bill with a slight modification relating to the selection panel to choose the Lokpal and its members. Under the revised proposal, the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha were replaced with the Rajya Sabha chairman and the Lok Sabha Speaker. The meeting was allegedly recorded and the Committee claimed that decisions would be made available to the general public. HRD Minister and Committee member Kapil Sibal, said that both the sides were keen that the new Bill should be introduced in the Monsoon session, which would begin early July.

Second draft meeting

The Committee met as planned on 2 May in 2011. The meeting was termed “very good” and with “no difference of opinion” between the panel members. Sibal said that the meeting discussed the document presented previously by the civil society members. Prashant Bhushan said, “The meeting was mainly to discuss the basic principles behind the Jan Lokpal Bill. The discussion was on essential features, objects and reasons of the bill which have been prepared according to the main provisions of the UN Convention against Corruption. All signatories of the United Nations Convention against Corruption have to pass this kind of law.” In May 2011, the Indian Government had ratified two UN Conventions – the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) and the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (UNTOC) and its three protocols.

Third draft meeting

 

Kapil Sibal, member of the Joint Drafting Committee of Lokpal

After the third meeting on 7 May in 2011, Bhushan said “Lokpal will have powers to initiate investigation and prosecution and will not need permission from the government. The model on which the financial independence will be based is yet to be decided. Various models were discussed, including from other countries and of institutions like the Supreme Court, the Comptroller and Auditor General and the Central Vigilance Commission.” Kapil Sibal said the meeting was “exceptionally constructive” and added, “The approach was very constructive. There were areas of broad agreement, including the process of appointment of Lokpal which should be transparent.” Another group of civil society members led by Aruna Roy and Harsh Mander working for a strong Lokpal Bill, upped its ante against Team Anna. Under the banner of the “National Campaign for People’s Right to Information” (NCPRI) they claimed that Anna’s diktat could be dangerous and that the government’s functioning could not be handled by one group.

Fourth draft meeting

The 23 May meeting in 2011 lasted over three hours and the two sides agreed “in-principle” on half of the 40 basic principles for the anti-graft Lokpal bill proposed by the civil society members.

Fifth draft meeting

At the 30 May 2011 meeting the chairman made it clear during the discussion that the matters pertaining to the exclusion of Prime Minister, Judiciary would be a part of the discussions on the scope of the Lokpal. The Chairman of the Panel announced that the conduct of the MPs’ inside Parliament would remain outside its remit of the Lokpal to comply with [Article 105(2)] of the Constitution and that the views of the State and the political parties would be discussed with the civil society members. These announcements created a stalemate between the Committee’s two-halves.

Sixth draft meeting

Team Anna boycotted 6 June 2011 meeting, alleging that the police crackdown on Baba Ramdev had “strengthened the doubts” about the government’s intentions and demanded that the next meeting be rescheduled because of Hazare’s other commitments. Shanti Bhushan produced a letter that was read by the Chair “indicating their inability to attend the meeting” and “that what happened at the Ramlila ground had nothing to do with the proceedings of the Joint Drafting Committee”. The chairman suggested that the drafting should be the focus. Post meeting, the draft was to be circulated to the other political parties for their consideration. They rescheduled the seventh meeting to 15 June.

Seventh draft meeting

The two hours event took place on 15 June in 2011, with out agreement on several issues. Both sides furnished versions to the Union Cabinet for consideration. Team Anna blamed the government for not being serious, claiming “The government is planning to kill Lokpal before it’s born”. The civil society members suggested that the Lokpal be empowered to probe corruption cases in instead of the departmental probes and CBI inquiries of the prior approach. The government rejected the idea. Chief Ministers of several BJP-ruled states expressed surprise that they were being consulted before the final draft was ready. Chief ministers of Congress-ruled states backed the Centre’s stand and opposed bringing the prime minister under the Lokpal’s ambit. BJP-ruled states sought wider deliberations. Opposition parties demanded to comment on the whole bill rather than on the six contentious issues. Anna Team demanded that the audio of the proceedings be made available to them. Hazare threatened to resume an indefinite fast if the bill was not passed by 15 August.

Comparison of Draft Lokpal Bill with the Jan Lokpal Bill
Issues Draft Lokpal Bill, 2011 (government representatives) Draft Jan Lokpal Bill, 2011 (nominees of Anna Hazare)
Composition Chairperson and 10 members (at least 4 judicial members) Chairperson and 10 members (at least 4 members with legal background). The Chairperson to have extensive knowledge of law.
Tenure Five years or till he is 70 years Five years or till he is 70 years
Manner of appointment Presidential appointment on the recommendation of the selection committee. Presidential appointment on the recommendation of the selection committee.
Committee membership Prime Minister, speaker, Leader of the House of which PM is not member, Minister of Home Affairs, Leader of the Opposition in both Houses, judge of Supreme Court, Chief Justice of a High Court, President of National Academy of Science, Cabinet Secretary (secretary of committee). Prime Minister, Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha, 2 judges of the Supreme Court, 2 chief justices of a high court, the Chief Election Commission, the CAG, and all previous chairpersons of the Lokpal. The members shall be selected from a list prepared by the Search Committee (10 members including civil society representatives).
Qualification Impeccable integrity with at least 25 years of experience in public affairs, academics, commerce, finance etc. Once appointed, cannot be an MP, MLA or be connected with a political party, business or practice a profession. A judicial member has to be either a Chief Justice of the High Court or a judge of the Supreme Court. A judicial member should have held judicial office for at least 10 years or been an advocate of the High Court or Supreme Court for at least 15 years. All members should be of impeccable integrity with record of public service especially in the field of corruption. Must be a citizen of India at least 45 years old. Must have no case involving moral turpitude framed against him by a court. Cannot have been a government servant within the last 2 years.
Removal Complaint against members are made to the President who may refer it to the Supreme Court who will conduct an inquiry. The President may remove the member, on the opinion of the Chief Justice, on grounds of bias, corruption, insolvency, paid employment or infirmity. The President removes members on the recommendation of the Supreme Court made within 3 months of a complaint. Grounds for removal: misbehavior, infirmity, insolvency, paid employment outside the office. An Independent Complaints Authority at the state level inquires into complaints against Lokpal staff.
Jurisdiction All corruption cases under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. It covers MPs, Ministers, ‘Group A’ officers, ‘Group A’ officers in a company or body owned by the government, any officer of a government-financed society or trust or funded by Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 1976 or that gets funds from the public. Excludes PM, judiciary and any action of an MP in the Parliament or Committee. Offences by a public servant, including government employees, judges, MPs, Ministers, and the Prime Minister under the Indian Penal Code and the 1988 Corruption Act. Any offence committed by an MP in respect of a speech or vote in the House; wilfully giving or taking benefit from a person. Victimizing a whistleblower or witness.
Investigation Lokpal must conduct a preliminary inquiry within 30 days. If there is no prima facie case, the matter is closed. Given a prima facie case, Lokpal investigates after providing a suitable forum to the accused. The investigation must be completed within six months with an optional six-month extension after giving reasons in writing. No sanction shall be required by the Lokpal to investigate any complaint against a public servant. When investigating corruption cases, the CBI works under the Lokpal. Investigation of the Prime Minister, Ministers, MPs and judges of the Supreme Court or High Courts require the permission of a 7-member bench of the Lokpal. Investigations can last 6 to 18 months. Investigation of whistleblower complaints who are in danger of victimisation, must be completed within 3 months.
Prosecution The Lokpal may constitute a prosecution wing headed by a director who files cases in the Special Court (to be constituted by the central government on recommendation of the Lokpal). Trials must complete within one year, which may be extended to two years for reasons given in writing. No sanction is required to file a case against a public servant. The Lokpal files cases in the Special Court and sends a copy of the report to the competent authority.

Procedure for persons other than MPs and ministers: The competent authority is the Minister for officers of government bodies and the society head for officers of societies. The Lokpal recommends disciplinary proceedings to the competent authority and provides a copy of the report to the accused. The competent authority must take action within 30 days and inform the Lokpal within 6 months of initiating disciplinary proceedings.

Procedure for MPs and ministers: The competent authority is the PM for Ministers and the Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha for MPs. The Speaker/Chairman tables the report in Parliament. The House reports to the Lokpal on any action taken within 90 days.

The CBI’s prosecution wing moves under Lokpal. After an investigation is completed, the Lokpal may either initiate prosecution against the accused or impose penalty or both. The Lokpal can initiate prosecution in the Special Court formed under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.

The Lokpal shall appoint retired judges or retired civil servants as judicial officers. A bench of judicial officers can impose a penalty on a public servant after conducting an inquiry. The decision shall be subject to approval from a higher authority to be prescribed.

Prosecution can be initiated against the Prime Minister, Ministers, MPs and judge of the Supreme Court or High Courts only with permission of a 7-member bench of the Lokpal. If the Lokpal grants permission to investigate or initiate prosecution, no sanction is required from any other authority.

Penalty Any person making false and frivolous or vexatious complaints shall be penalised with 2 to 5 years of jail and fine of Rs 25,000 to Rs 200,000. For any act of corruption, the penalty shall be from six months to life imprisonment. If the beneficiary for an offence is a business entity, a fine of up to five times the loss caused to the public shall be recovered. If a company director is convicted, the company shall be blacklisted from any government contract. Convicted public servants are removed from office. Persons making a false complaint, are fined up to Rs 100,000. False complaints against a member of the Lokpal may result in 3 months imprisonment.
Funding Paid by Consolidated Fund of India. Paid by Consolidated Fund of India. The budget of the Lokpal should not be less than 0.25 percent of total government revenue. No sanction required from government to incur expenditure. The CAG audits Lokpal and a Parliamentary Committee evaluates Lokpal operations.
Other powers The Lokpal can search and seize documents, attach property for 90 days, file for confirming the attachment within 30 days, and recommend suspension of the accused. The Lokpal can receive complaints from whistle-blowers, issue search warrants, attach property, recommend cancellation/modification of a lease or license or blacklist a company. If recommendation of Lokpal is not accepted it can approach the High Court. A bench of the Lokpal can approve interception and monitoring of messages transmitted through telephone or internet.

Union Cabinet approved bill

The government moved its version of the billin the Lok Sabha on 4 August, the ninth such introduction. The bill was introduced by the Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s Office, V Narayanasamy. Leader of Opposition Sushma Swaraj opposed the exclusion of the prime minister from the purview of the proposed Lokpal. V Narayanasamy told the House that Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was in favour of bringing his office under the purview of the Lokpal, but the Cabinet rejected the idea after deliberation. Anna Hazare burnt copies of the bill, to protest the government’s lack of sincerity. On 27 August the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha passed a Pranab Mukherjee-proposed resolution conveying the sense of the House on the Lokpal Bill. The House agreed ‘in principle’ on a Citizen’s Charter, placing the lower bureaucracy under the Lokpal and establishing the Lokayukta in the States.

Standing Committee bill

31-member committee consisting of 25 MPs belonging to 22 political parties with 6 seats vacant
Member Name Party Member Of
Abhishek Manu Singhvi Congress Rajya Sabha
Chandresh Kumari Congress Lok Sabha
N.S.V. Chitthan Congress Lok Sabha
Deepa Dashmunsi Congress Lok Sabha
Prabha Kishore Taviad Congress Lok Sabha
Manish Tewari Congress Lok Sabha
P.T. Thomas (Idukki) Congress Lok Sabha
Meenakshi Natrajan Congress Lok Sabha
Balavant alias Bal Apte BJP Rajya Sabha
D.B. Chandre Gowda BJP Lok Sabha
Harin Pathak BJP Lok Sabha
Jyoti Dhurve BJP Lok Sabha
Devji M Patel BJP Lok Sabha
Parimal Nathwani Independent Rajya Sabha
Amar Singh Independent Rajya Sabha
Kirodi Lal Meena Independent Lok Sabha
Ram Jethmalani Nominated Member Rajya Sabha
Ram Vilas Paswan LJSP Rajya Sabha
O.T. Lepcha SDF Rajya Sabha
Lalu Prasad RJD Lok Sabha
Shailendra Kumar SP Lok Sabha
Monazir Hassan JD(U) Lok Sabha
S. Semmalai AIADMK Lok Sabha
Vijay Bahadur Singh BSP Lok Sabha
R. Thamaraiselvan DMK Lok Sabha

The Jan Lokpal Bill was submitted to the committee by Congress MP from Bareilly Praveen Singh Aron. The draft bill was distributed to members on 28 November. The committee recommended keeping judiciary and MPs’ out of the Lokpal’s purview and rejected the demand to move the prosecution wing of CBI under its jurisdiction. Committee members had unanimously recommended conferring constitutional status on the Lokpal and setting up of Lokpal and Lokayuktas in states under one bill. The draft document did not take a position on the inclusion of prime minister. Another of Team Anna’s demands for inclusion of entire bureaucracy was turned down, given that the draft favoured inclusion of Group A and B officials, leaving out C and D staff. Anna Hazare rejected this draft. At the final meeting on 7 December they decided to bring Group C and D officers under the ambit of state Lokayuktas. Sixteen dissent notes were submitted at the meeting by members from BJP, BJD, SP, Congress, RJD and the Left.

Enactment by the Lok Sabha

The Lokpal Bill was tabled in the Lok Sabha on 22 December 2011 and passed by voice voting on the first day of the three-day extended session of the Winter session of the Lok Sabha, on 27 December 2011, after a marathon debate that lasted over 10 hours. The lokpal body was not given the constitutional status as the Constitutional Amendment Bill, which provided for making the Lokpal a constitutional body, was defeated in the house. The Prime Minister described this as “a bit of disappointment”, adding, “We have, however, fulfilled our objective of bringing these bills to Parliament as we had promised.” The bill passed by the house was termed “useless” by Team Anna, who reiterated their view that there was no need to give constitutional status to such a weak Lokpal.

 

The bill was passed in the Lok Sabha. But, it is pending in the Rajya Sabha

The government withdrew its previous version and had introduced a newer version of the bill. RJD leader Lalu Prasad, along with the support from the other parties like SP, AIMMM and LJP, demanded an inclusion of candidates from minorities in the nine member Lokpal Bench. The government gave in to the demands of parties. The principal opposition party, the BJP, objected to it, classifying that such a move was illegal and asked the government to withdraw the bill. BJD, JDU, RJD, SP, TDP and Left said the bill was weak and wanted it to be withdrawn.

The bill passed by the house deleted the provision that gave presiding officers the power to act against ministers and MPs, even before trial, but the exemption time of former MPs was increased from five to seven years. It excluded armed forces and coast guard from the purview of the anti-graft body. The lokpal would take complaints against the prime minister after the consent of two-thirds of the Lokpal panel. The consent of state governments is mandatory for the notification to set up Lokayuktas in the states, but the setting up of them in the states was made mandatory. The appointment panel is loaded in favour of the government. The Lokpal Bill was passed under Article 252 of the constitution of India. The Prime Minister said, “We believe that the CBI should function without interference through any Government diktat. But no institution and no individual, howsoever high he may be, should be free from accountability.”

The Left, Samajwadi Party and BSP staged a walkout during voting of the bill, protesting that their demands were not being met. At least 15 Congress members and close to a dozen belonging to UPA allies were not present at the time of voting. The house also secured the passage of the Whistleblowers Bill

Journey through The Rajya Sabha

Winter session, 2011

 

Hamid Ansari, Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, adjourned the house sine die

The ombudsman debate was taken up by The Rajya Sabha during the last day of the three-day extension of the winter session of Parliament, but the body recessed on 29 December without voting. The bill was debated for over 12 hours ending abruptly at midnight as the House ran out of scheduled time. The House was adjourned sine die by Chairman Hamid Ansari. A verbal duel marred proceedings as some members including UPA ally Trinamool Congress interrupted V. Narayanasamy’s defence of the Bill. A vociferous opposition insisted on a vote while the government maintained it needed time to reconcile the 187 amendments/ Confusion marked the proceedings. Ansari asked for the national anthem Jana Gana Mana to be played, signalling the end of the proceedings and told the house:

This is an unprecedented situation…there appears to be a desire to outshout each other. There is a total impasse. The House cannot be conducted in the noise that requires orderly proceedings, I am afraid the Chair has no option…most reluctantly…I am afraid I can’t and…

After a 15-minute adjournment between 11.30 and 11.45 PM, Pawan Kumar Bansal said that the decision on extension of the House was the government’s prerogative. Leader of the Opposition Arun Jaitley charged that the government was running away from Parliament and that the House should decide how long it should sit. He added:

You are creating an institution where you control the appointment mechanism, where you control the removal mechanism. We will support the appointment of the Lokpal procedures, but we cannot be disloyal to our commitment to create an integrity institution.

Sitaram Yechury (CPI-M) said the House had expected the bill on Wednesday, but it came only on Thursday, the last day of the session. Derek O’Brien said “This is a shameful day for India’s democracy. The government handled this situation very badly.” As the Opposition insisted on a vote, Bansal said the government was willing provided that the House passed the Bill voted by the Lok Sabha on Tuesday. This meant that the proposed amendments would have to be set aside.

As stalemate and wrangling continued, the chairman called an end to the proceedings. Chidambaram defended the deferment of Lokpal and Lokayukta Bill, 2011 in Rajya Sabha on 29 December contending that it was the “only prudent course” before the government and that it had ensured that the Bill remained alive. He continued to attack the BJP and called the amendments an “ingenious” method to scuttle the bill. Hazare called off his hunger strike prematurely, blaming poor health.

Budget session, 2012

Members of the panel proposed by the government
Member Name Party
Shantaram Naik Congress
Satyavrat Chaturvedi Congress
Shadi Lal Batra Congress
Arun Jaitley BJP
Rajiv Pratap Rudy BJP
Bhupendra Yadav BJP
KN Balagopal CPM
Shivanand Tiwari JD-U
Tiruchi Shiva DMK
Satish Mishra BSP
D Bandyopadhyay Trinamool Congress
Ramgopal Yadav SP
DP Tripathi NCP
V Maitreyan AIADMK
AK Ganguly Nominated

Activists pushing hoped that the House would approve the bill towards the end of the second half of the budget session of 2012. The bill was re-introduced in the Rajya Sabha on 21 May 2012. While moving the bill, the minister said that the differences had been narrowed. He said that the government proposed to bring the lower bureaucracy under the Lokpal, which would have investigation and prosecution powers. CVC would monitor Lokpal-referred investigations by the CBI. There would be provisions for attaching properties and a time-frame for investigations. An amendment was proposed whereby the states would pass the bill so the national law would not be forced upon states. After the amended bill was introduced, Narayanasamy, Samajwadi Party member Naresh Agrawal sought to send the bill to a select committee. This was strongly objected to by BJP, the Left parties and BSP, with their members arguing that only the minister concerned (Narayanasamy) could do so and accusing the ruling coalition of “using the shoulder” of a “friendly opposition” party. After high drama the government yielded and Narayanasamy moved the motion, which immediately passed by voice vote. The 15-member select committee was to submit its report by the first day of the last week of the Monsoon Session.

The committee met on 25 June and decided on “wider consultations” with the government officials and the public. The panel invited public comments and called representatives of various ministries for recording evidence. The meeting was headed by senior Congress MP Satyavrat Chaturvedi. Law Secretary B A Agarwal was summoned to clarify various matters. The committee met again on 19 July 2012. The director of the CBI aired his views in the meeting. He made it clear that the CBI is open to changes in the Lokpal bill that strengthen the agency’s autonomy by enhancing the proposed Lokpal’s role in key appointments like those of director, head of prosecution and lawyers who represent CBI. He also mentioned in the meeting that the Lokpal should be given a significant say in appointing the director of the prosecution wing instead of the process being controlled by the law ministry as is currently the procedure, the persistent criticism about CBI’s investigations being throttled by political directives could be addressed as well. He opposed making the prosecution or the anti-corruption wings subservient to the Lokpal. The select committee had in its earlier sittings examined senior law officials who agreed with the members that the prescription for lokayuktas under Article 253 that refers to fulfilment of international obligations – in this case the UN convention against corruption – might not be feasible. Recourse to international treaties to frame a law that impact the federal structure is not within the ambit of the law. The Select committee referred the Bill for Public Suggestions in July 2012. In reply hundreds of responses were received to the Rajya Sabha. The committee took a view and shortlisted certain recommendations and took Oral Evidence in physical presence of the Members. Committee considered some of the most valid suggestions being done by the Members. Mr. Deepak Tongli of Hyderabad had come with a proposal of setting up the lower most unit to keep regular check on Anti Corruption in petty cases at District Level. In addition few other members also shared their views in this regard. Mr. Tongli, 26 yrs aged happened to be the youngest person to appear before the Parliamentary committee for Oral Evidence at Rajya Sabha.

Monsoon session, 2012

The monsoon session of parliament was to be held in August 2012. Hence, a bill that is pending before the upper house whether or not it was passed by the Lok Sabha, does not lapse on its dissolution. Hence, the bill is still alive in its present form. The bill was not expected to be tabled in the Rajya Sabha before the first day of the last week of the session.

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 is an Act of Indian Parliament that bifurcated the state of Andhra Pradesh into Telangana and the residuary Andhra Pradesh state. The Act defined the boundaries of the two states, determed how the assets and liabilities were to be divided, and laid out the status of Hyderabad as the permanent capital of Telangana and temporary capital of the new Andhra Pradesh state.

An earlier version of the bill, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2013, was rejected by the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly on 30 January 2014. The 2014 bill was passed in the Lok Sabha on 18 February 2014 and in the Rajya Sabha on 20 February 2014. The bill was attested by the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee on 1 March 2014 and published in the official Gazette. The new states were created on 2 June 2014.

Contents

  • 1 Legislative history
    • 1.1 Suspension of members of parliament
    • 1.2 Resolution for the united Andhra Pradesh in Assembly
    • 1.3 Petitions against the Bill in Supreme Court
  • 2 Details of the Bill
  • 3 New capital for residual Andhra Pradesh

Legislative history

The Union Cabinet formed a Group of Ministers (GoM) committee in August 2013 led by the Union Home Minister, Sushil Kumar Shinde to look into the suitability of a division of Andhra Pradesh. The members included the Finance Minister, P. Chidambaram, Health Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad, Law Minister Kapil Sibal, Union Rural Development Minister Jairam Ramesh and NarayanaswamyIt also took the Srikrishna committee on Telangana into account.

A duly validated no-confidence motion against the congress government was submitted to the speaker of the house Meira Kumari by Congress MPs from Andhra Pradesh making the sitting government a minority government. Long held parliamentary procedure that required immediate consideration of no-confidence motions intended to prevent illegitimate governments from passing laws was ignored by the speaker. Amidst a lot of protest in the Lok Sabha (the lower house of the Parliament of India), the bill was introduced by the speaker Meira Kumar at 12:00 pm on 13 February 2014. During this time, there was a lot of shouting of slogans and disruption of proceedings by the Seemandhra (non-Telangana) MPs in the parliament who were determined to stop the bill. The Indian National Congress party MP’s attacked the anti-Telangana protestors, and the MP Lagadapati Rajagopal used pepper spray in the parliament. Later he said he was attacked by some Congress MPs from other states and had to use it in self-defence. The parliament was then adjourned at 12:05 pm to 02:00 pm.

The leader of the opposition in the Lok Sabha Sushma Swaraj said she did not know if the bill was introduced. On 18 February 2014, the Telangana Bill was passed by the Voice Vote in the Lok Sabha with support from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) while the live telecast of the House was cut off and the doors and galleries were sealed. The Seemandhra leaders accused the United Progressive Alliance government of having taken it up for electoral gains and said it was a “black day” for the Indian parliament.

On 20 February, the Telangana bill was passed by the Rajya Sabha (the higher house of parliament) with support from the BJP. MPs from various parties asked for division but it was rejected by speaker. Finally, the bill was passed by a voice vote.

The bill received the assent of the President and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014. The new State came into effect “from the date set by the central government also known as appointed date.” It became the 29th state of India.

Suspension of members of parliament

Due to disruptions to the House, Meira Kumar suspended 18 MPs from Andhra Pradesh on 13 February 2014 for the rest of the session. They included 11 MPs of the Congress party (Sabbam Hari, Anantha Venkatarami Reddy, Rayapati Sambasiva Rao, S. P. Y. Reddy, M. Sreenivasulu Reddy, V. Aruna Kumar, A. Sai Prathap, Suresh Kumar Shetkar, K. R. G. Reddy, Bapi Raju Kanumuri and G. Sukhender Reddy), three MPs of the Telugu Desam party (Niramalli Sivaprasad, Nimmala Kristappa, and K. Narayana Rao), two MPs of YSR Congress (Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy and M. Rajamohan Reddy), and two other MPs from the Telangana region.

Resolution for the united Andhra Pradesh in Assembly

Though only an opinion is required under Article 3 of the Indian Constitution, a resolution was adopted and the bill was rejected by the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly and Council on 30 January 2014.[21] This was the first instance a state was re-organized after a state clearly expressed an opinion against the re-organization in Indian history.

Petitions against the Bill in Supreme Court

Nine petitions were filed in the Supreme Court of India requesting a stay of the tabling of the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill in parliament. The court rejected the pleas saying, “We do not think this is the appropriate stage for us to interfere”. They would only consider the petition if the bill was passed in parliament. But the court issued notices to the centre regarding the issue on 7 March 2014. The apex court would take up the issue on 5 May 2014. The next hearing in the Supreme Court was scheduled for 20 August 2014 One petitioner approached the Supreme Court praying that the parliament does not have the power either under Articles 3, 4(2) or any other provision of the Constitution of India to divide a state except by an appropriate amendment of the Constitution under article 368 and with the unanimous consent of the people of the affected State or States. While invoking Articles 2 & 3, the deemed constitutional amendment provision under article 4 (2) of the constitution bypassing Article 368 was said to be invalid after the 24th amendment in 1971. The law ministry of the union government considered bringing appropriate amendments (including constitutional amendments) to the Act to bring legality to it.

The common high court of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states stated that the division of the high court located at Hyderabad can only be done with the formation of separate high court for Andhra Pradesh located in that state as per section 31 of the Act. A separate high court for Telangana can not be formed by dividing the present common high court as the existing high court at Hyderabad would become high court of Telangana state after the formation of one for Andhra Pradesh.

On the applicability of the section 47 of Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Supreme Court in its judgement clarified the manner the financial assets and liabilities of undivided state departments and corporations are to be shared between the new states. In an effort to avoid the huge financial burden to finance the creation of many institutions in the truncated AP state, the affidavit of central government clinched the dispute against the Telangana state

Details of the Bill

The bill was introduced on 5 December 2013, the first day of the winter session in the Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh. The Union cabinet approved formation of Telangana with ten districts. Hyderabad will remain as the common capital under the Governor’s supervision for not more than ten years. A new capital city for Andhra Pradesh would be declared in 45 days.

The Bill was drafted based on the boundaries of the proposed Telangana State as approved by the Union Cabinet in its meeting on 3 October 2013. The new state of Telangana would have 119 elected members of its legislative assembly, 40 members of its legislative council, 17 members of the Lok Sabha and 7 members in the Rajya Sabha. The residuary state of Andhra Pradesh would have 175 elected MLAs, 50 MLCs, 25 MPs of Lok Sabha and 11 MPs of Rajya Sabha.

There would be a common High Court and its expenditure would be apportioned between the two successor states based on population ratio until a separate court was set up under Article 214 for the residuary state of Andhra Pradesh. The existing Public Service Commission would be the Public Service Commission for the residuary state of Andhra Pradesh and the Union Public Service Commission would, with the approval of President, act as the Public Service Commission for Telangana.

The Ministry of Water Resources of the Government of India would constitute a Krishna River Management Board and a Godavari River Management Board within a period of 60 days from the date of coming into force of the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill. The Boards would be responsible for the administration, regulation and maintenance of the head works of the dams, reservoirs or head works of canals, as notified by the Government of India on Krishna and Godavari rivers, to implement all the awards made by the Tribunals. The Boards would be responsible for making an appraisal of proposals for construction of new projects on Krishna and Godavari rivers and give technical clearance.

The Governor shall have special responsibility to the security of life, liberty and property of all those who reside in the common capital of Hyderabad. The Governor’s responsibility shall extend to matters such as law and order, internal security and safety of all vital installations in the discharge of these functions. This transitory provision shall cease to be have effect after a period not exceeding 10 years.

The Bill provides for the creation of separate cadres of All India Servicesin respect of the two states from the appointed day. Advisory Committee(s) would be constituted to ensure fair and equitable treatment of all employees.

The Government of India shall help the successor states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh in raising additional police forces for maintenance of public order and shall also deploy one additional unit of the force in Hyderabad for a period of five years.

The Greyhound training centre in Hyderabad shall function as common training centre for the successor states for three years. In this period of three years, the GoI shall assist the successor state of Andhra Pradesh in setting up a similar training centre for Greyhounds. The existing Greyhound and OCTOPUS forces shall be distributed between the two states.

Of the total equity of Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL), 51 per cent shall be with Government of Telangana and 49 per cent with Government of India. Existing coal linkages of SCCL shall continue without any change. New linkages shall be allotted to the successor States as per the new coal distribution policy by the Government of India.

Allocation of natural gas will continue to be done as per the policies and guidelines issued by the Government of India. The royalties payable on domestic on-shore production of oil and gas shall accrue to the state in which such production takes place. Allocation of power from Central generating stations shall be allocated to the successor states in the ratio of the average of the actual energy consumption of last five years of the relevant Discoms. For a period of 10 years, the successor state that has a deficit of electricity shall have the first right of refusal for the purchase of surplus power from the other state.

Later Polavaram ordinance merging the project-affected villages in the residuary Andhra Pradesh state was accepted by the Parliament in July 2014. Seven mandals from Khammam district of Telangana have been transferred to Andhra Pradesh. Four mandals from Bhadrachalam revenue division namely, Chinturu, Kunavaram, Vararamachandrapuram, Bhadrachalam (excluding the Bhadrachalam revenue village) were transferred to East Godavari district. Three mandals from Palvancha revenue division namely, Kukunoor, Velerupadu, Burgampadu (except 12 villages namely, pinapaka, morampalli, banjara, burgampadu, naginiprolu, krishnasagar, tekula, sarapaka, iravendi, motepattinagar, uppusaka, nakiripeta and sompalli), have been added to West Godavari district. This came into force as the 16th Lok Sabha has passed the Polavaram Ordinance Bill with the voice vote on 11 July 2014.

New capital for residual Andhra Pradesh

On 4 September 2014, the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh Nara Chandrababu Naidu, declared in the Legislative Assembly that the new capital of Andhra Pradesh state would come up in and around Vijayawada. The capital city was named as Amaravati on 1 April 2015.

The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2015

 

  •  The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2015 was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister of State, Ministry of Home Affairs, Mr. Haribhai Partibhai Chaudhary on February 27, 2015.  The Bill amends the Citizenship Act, 1955.
  • The Citizenship Act, 1955 regulates the acquisition and determination of citizenship after commencement of the Constitution.  It provides for citizenship by birth, descent, registration, naturalisation and by incorporation of territory.  In addition, it provides for renunciation and termination of citizenship under certain circumstances.  It also contains provisions regarding registration of Overseas Citizens of India and their rights.
  • Citizenship by registration and naturalisation: The Act allows a person to apply for citizenship by registration or naturalisation if they fulfil certain qualifications.  For example, a person may apply for citizenship by registration if they or their parents were earlier citizens of India, and if they resided in India for one year before applying for registration.  Similarly, a person may apply for a certificate of naturalisation if they have resided in India or have served a government in India for a period of 12 months immediately preceding the date of application.  The Bill allows the central government to relax the requirement of 12 months stay or service if special circumstances exist.  Relaxation up to 30 days may be permitted.
  • Overseas Citizen of India cardholders: The Act outlines certain qualifications for registering a person as an Overseas Citizen of India.  The Bill provides certain additional grounds for registering for an Overseas Citizen of India card.  These are: (i) a minor child whose parent(s) are Indian citizens; or (ii) spouse of foreign origin of an Indian citizen or spouse of foreign origin of an Overseas Citizen of India cardholder subject to certain conditions; or (iii) great-grandchild of a person who is a citizen of another country, but who meets one of several conditions (for example, the great-grandparent must be a citizen of India at the time of commencement of the Constitution or any time afterwards).  An Overseas Citizen of India is entitled to some benefits such as a multiple-entry, multi-purpose life-long visa to visit India.
  • The Act also provides that any person who is/has been a citizen of Pakistan or Bangladesh or any other country which is notified by the central government will be ineligible to apply for Overseas Citizenship of India.  The Bill extends this provision to cover persons whose parents/grandparents/ great-grandparents were citizens of any of the above countries.
  • The Bill also introduces a new provision which allows the central government to register a person as an Overseas Citizen of India cardholder even if s/he does not satisfy any of the listed qualifications.  This is permissible if special circumstances exist.
  • Merger of Overseas Citizen of India and Persons of Indian Origin schemes: Currently, the central government provides for two schemes for Indian origin persons, and their families, the Persons of Indian Origin card and the Overseas Citizen of India card.  Persons of Indian Origin enjoy fewer benefits than Overseas Citizens of India.  For example, they are entitled to visa free entry into India for 15 years, while Overseas Citizens of India are provided a life-long visa.  The Bill provides that the central government may notify that Persons of Indian Origin cardholders shall be considered to be Overseas Citizen of India cardholders from a specified date.
  • Renunciation and cancellation of overseas citizenship: The Act provides that where a person renounces their overseas citizenship, their minor child shall also cease to be an Overseas Citizen of India.  The Bill extends this provision to cover spouses of Overseas Citizen of India cardholders.  The Bill also allows the central government to cancel the Overseas Citizenship of India card where it is obtained by the spouse of an Indian citizen or Overseas Citizen of India cardholder, if: (i) the marriage is dissolved by a court, or (ii) the spouse enters into another marriage even while the first marriage has not been dissolved.
  • Date of commencement: The Bill if enacted will be considered to have come into force on January 6, 2015.

After Independence

Committee Appointed in Submitted report in Summary Report
Shah Nawaz Committee 1955 1956 The three-member committee was formed by the Nehru-government to address the public demand to investigate the disappearance of Subhas Chandra Bose. The committee was led by Shah Nawaz Khan, and included Suresh Chandra Bose, brother of Subhas, and S. N. Maitra. The committee came to the conclusion that Bose was killed in a plane crash. But, Suresh Chandra Bose did not agree with the report.
Balwant Rai Mehta Committee 1957 1957 Examine the working of the Community Development Programme and the National Extension Service Establishment of the scheme of ‘democratic decentralisation’ (Panchayati Raj)
Ashok Mehta Committee 1977 1978 In December 1977, the Janata Government appointed a committee on Panchayati Raj institutions under the chairmanship of Ashoka Mehta. The committee submitted its report in August 1978 and made 132 recommendations to revive and strengthen the declining Panchayati Raj system in the country
Narasimham Committee on Banking Sector Reforms (1998) 1998 1998    
Sachar Committee 2005 2006 Examine social, economic and educational condition of the Muslim community of India  
Srikrishna committee on Telangana 2010 2010    
Naresh Chandra Committee   2012 Defense reforms  

 

Ad hoc commissions

No. Commission Year Objectives
1 States Reorganisation Commission 1955
  • Recommend the reorganization of state boundaries
2 Kothari Commission 1964
  • To formulate the general principles and guidelines for the development of education at all levels
  • To advise the government on a standardized national pattern of education in India
3 Kapur Commission 1966
  • To inquiry into the conspiracy that led to the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
4 Khosla Commission 1970
  • Investigate the death of Subhas Chandra Bose in 1945
5 Mandal Commission 1980
  • Identified over 450 backward classes comprising 52% of the country’s population
  • Recommended 27% of the seats in academic institutions and jobs in Govt. organisations for these classes.
6 Sarkaria Commission 1983
  • To examine the balance of power between centre and state and suggest reforms
  • Gave appropriate reccomendations on appointment of Governor.
7 Mukherjee Commission 1999
  • Investigate the death of Subhas Chandra Bose in 1945
8 Nanavati Commission 2000
  • Investigate the 1984 anti-Sikh riots
9 Narendran Commission 2000
  • Study and report the representation of Backward Classes in the State public services.
10 National Commission to review the working of the Constitution February 2000
  • Suggested changes in the electoral laws, setting up a national judicial commission for appointing judges and election of the Prime Minister by Lok Sabha.
11 Nanavati-Shah commission 2002
  • To probe the Godhra train burning incident and the post-Godhra carnage, 2002
12

CommisPermanent commissions

No. Commission Formed Objectives Ministry Website
1 Atomic Energy Commission of India 3 August 1948
  • Plan and implement various measures on sound technical and economic principles and free from all non-essential restrictions or needlessly elastic rules in the field of atomic energy
Department of Atomic Energy aec.gov.in
2 Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices 1965
  • Stabilize agricultural prices
  • Meaningful real income levels to farmers
  • Essential agricultural commodities at reasonable prices
Ministry of Agriculture (India) cacp.dacner.nic.in
3 National Commission for Backward Classes[1] 14 August 1993
  • Consider inclusions in and exclusions from the lists of castes notified as backward for the purpose of job reservations
  • Advice to the Central Government on such matters
Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment ncdc.nic.in
4 National Commission on Cattle 2002
  • Suggest ways of improving the condition of cattle
Ministry of Agriculture (India) dahd.nic.in
5 Competition Commission of India 14 October 2003
  • Enforce The Competition Act, 2002 throughout India
  • Prevent activities that have an adverse effect on competition in India.
  cci.gov.in
6 National Statistical Commission 1 June 2005
  • Reduce the problems faced by statistical agencies in the country in relation to collection of data.
  • Special emphasis on ensuring collection of unbiased data so as to restore public trust in the figures released by the Government.
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation mospi.nic.in
7 Telecom Commission[2] 1989
  • responsible for policy formulation, licensing, wireless spectrum management, administrative monitoring of PSUs, research and development and standardization/validation of equipment etc.
Ministry of Communications and Information Technology[4] dot.gov.in
8 Election Commission 25 January 1950 Constitutional Autonomous Body

  • conducts the elections to the offices of the President and Vice-President of India,parliament,State Legislative assemblies and legislative councils
  eci.nic.in
9 Chief Labour Commissioner 1945
  • Prevention and settlement of industrial disputes through conciliation/mediation.
  • Enforcement of Labour Laws and Rules made there under in Central Sphere.
  • Quasi-Judicial functions.
  • Verification of Trade Union membership etc.
  clc.gov.in
10 Planning Commission 1950
  • Formulates India’s Five-Year Plans, among other functions
  planningcommission.nic.in / planningcommission.org
11 Law Commission 1955
  • Reforming the Law For Maximising Justice in Society and Promoting Good Governance under the Rule of Law
Ministry of Law & Justice lawcommissionofindia.nic.in
12 Finance Commission 22 November 1951   Autonomous Constitutional Body fincomindia.nic.in
13 Human Rights Commission 12 October 1993   Autonomous Constitutional Body nhrc.nic.in
14 University Grants Commission 28 December 1953
  • Coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education.
  • It provides recognition to universities in India, and disburses funds to such recognized universities and college.
Ministry of Human Resource Development ugc.ac.in
15 Vigilance Commission (CVC) February 1964
  • To address governmental corruption
  cvc.nic.in
16 Knowledge Commission 13 June 2005     knowledgecommission.gov.in
17 National Commission for Women 1992 * protecting and promoting the interests of women in India   ncw.nic.in
18 Scheduled Tribes Commission 19 February 2004 * protection, welfare and development & advancement of the Scheduled Tribes   ncst.nic.in
19 Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector 2004   Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises nceuis.nic.in
20 Census Commission 1872 Ministry of Home Affairs    
21 Central Forestry Commission 1965      
22 Central Water Commission 1945 Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation    
23 Electronics Commission 1971      
24 Commission for Additional Sources of Energy 21 March 1981      
25 Rashtriya Barh Ayog (National Flood Commission) 1976 Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation    
26 Indo-Bangladesh Joint Rivers Commission 1972      
27 Khadi and Village Industries Commission 1957   MINISTRY OF MICRO, SMALL & MEDIUM ENTERPRISES  
28 Space Commission 1962      
29 Staff Selection Commission 1 July 1976   Department of Personnel and Training  
30 National judicial appointments commission   Transferring of judges to higher judiciary    

sion for Religious and Linguistic Minorities

2004