Indian Honors, Awards And Medals
Civilian awards of India are conferred to common man for showing distinguished work in their field of work. Any specific work background is not necessary for this. Any civilian who has shown great achievements in their field of professional work are considered eligible for this award. Various decorations which come under civilian awards of India – Bharat Ratna, Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan. These awards have a degree of reputation and honour. Bharat Ratna is of 1st degree, Padma Vibhushan is 2nd degree, Padma Bhushan is 3rd degree while Padma Shri is of last degree of honour of Civilian Awards. All these awards are conferred by President of India on the Republic Day. All of these awards were started from year 1954. All of these medals are produced at Indian Government Mint of Kolkata.
- Bharat Ratna is considered as the highest civilian award. These awards are conferred for achievements in the field of Science, Arts, Literature and Public services. Later amendment was done in year 2013 in eligibility criteria and sports category was also included for considering the awards.
- The award is in the form of Peepal leef, about 5.8 cm long, 4.7 cm wide and 3.1 mm thick. It is of toned bronze. It is embossed with a replica of Sun, 1.6 cm in diameter below which the words “Bharat Ratna” are embossed in Devnagri script. On the reverse are state emblem and the state motto (Satyameva Jayte), also in Devnagri script. The emblem, the sun and the rim are of platinum. The inscriptions are in burnished bronze.
- The first three recipients of the Bharat Ratna Award were C. Rajagopalachari, Dr S Radhakrishnan, Dr C V Raman during the inception year 1954.
- Only two foreign nationals are awarded by this award so far. The first foreign national was Khan Abdul Gaff Khan in 1987 and Nelson Mandela was the second person to be honoured in 1990. The naturalised citizen Mother Teresa received this award in 1980.
- Lal Bahadur Shastri was the first person to be awarded posthumously.
- Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi were the only two Prime Ministers who recommended their own names for this award.
- Sachin Tendulkar was the youngest and the only sports person to be honoured with this award in 2013.
- In year 1992, Subhash Chandra Bose was declared for this award posthumously but it created huge protests and unrest due to word “Posthumous” and his family refused to accept this award.
- The only filmmaker who was conferred with this award was Satyajit Rey in 1992.
- In order of rank this award is considered as second highest honour after Bharat Ratna awards. The award is given for exceptional and distinguished services in any field like Science, arts, public service including the services rendered by government employees.
- The decoration is circular in design, with a geometric pattern superimposed on the circle. The diameter of the circle is 4.4 cm and the thickness about 0.6 mm. There is lotus flower embossed on the circular space. The word “Padma” is embossed in Devnagri script above the word “Vibhushan” which comes below the lotus flower. On the reverse are the state emblem and motto Satya Meva Jayte inscribed in Devnagri script. It is of toned bronze. The inscription “Padma Vibhushan”, geometric pattern and the border around periphery are in burnished bronze. All embossing on either side of decoration is in white gold.
- This award was started in year 1954 and first recipients of this award were S N Bose, Nand Lal Bose, Zakir Hussain, B G Kher, J D Wangchuk and V K Menon.
- Sachin Tendulkar is the youngest person who received Padma Vibhushan Award in year 2008. Sachin Tendulkar also received Arjuna Award in 1994, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award in 1997, Padma Shri in year 1999 and Bharat Ratna in 2104.
- In order of rank this award is considered as third highest honour after Bharat Ratna awards The award is given for distinguished service of a high order in any field including services rendered by government employees.
- It has the same design as the “Padma Vibhushan”. On the obverse the word “Padma” appears above the word “Vibhushan” which comes below the lotus flower. The inscription “Padma Bhushan” on the obverse, the geometric pattern on either side and the border around the periphery are in burnished bronze. All embossing either side of the decoration is in standard gold.
- This award was also started in year 1954 and some of the first recipients include Homi Jahangir Bhabha, Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar, M S Subbalakshmi, Sukumar Sen, Amar Nath Jha, R R Handa and Radha Krishan Gupta.
- In order of rank this award is considered as fourth highest honour after Bharat Ratna awards The award is given for distinguished services in any field including the services rendered by government employees.
- The name of the decoration is embossed in Devnagri script with the word “Padma” above the word “Shri” which comes below the lotus flower on the obverse. The inscription “Padma Shri” on the obverse, the geometric pattern on either side and the border around the periphery are in burnished bronze. All embossing on either side of decoration is in stainless steel.
- This award was also started in year 1954 and some of the first recipients include Dr Mathura Das, Dr K R Chakraborty and Akhil Chandra Mitra.
|भारतीय सम्मान और पदक|
इंदिरा गांधी शांति पुरस्कार
|वर्ष||पुरस्कृत व्यक्ति||चित्र||जन्म / मृत्यु||देश||विवरण|
|1986||पार्लामेंटेरिअंस फार ग्लोबल ऐक्शन||—||स्था. १९७८||– –||इंटरनेशनल ऑरगेनाइजेशन आफ पार्लामेंटेरिअंस|
|1987||मिखाइल गोर्बाचोफ||ज. १९३१||रूस||भूतपूर्व सोवियत संघ नेता|
|1988||ग्रो हार्लेम ब्रंड्टलैंड||ज. १९३९||नॉर्वे||नार्वे की भूतपूर्व प्रधानमंत्री|
|1989||यूनिसेफ||स्था. १९४६||—||यूनाइटेड नेशन्स चिल्ड्रेंस फंड|
|1990||सैम नुजोमा||ज. १९२९||नमीबिया||नमीबिया के प्रथम राष्ट्रपति|
|1991||राजीव गाँधी||१९४४ – १९९१||भारत||भूतपूर्व भारत के प्रधानमंत्री (मरणोपरांत)|
|1992||साबुरो ओकिता||—||1914 – 1993||जापान||जापान के अर्थशास्त्री|
|१९९३||वाक्लाव हावेल||१९३६ – २०११||चेक गणराज्य||प्रथम चेक गणराज्य के राष्ट्रपति|
|१९९४||ट्रेवोर हडलेस्टन||१९१३ – १९९८||रंगभेद के विरुद्ध कार्य करने के लिये|
|१९९५||ओलुसेगुन ओबासान्जो||ज. १९३७||नाइजीरिया||नाइजीरिया के १२वें राष्ट्रपति|
|१९९६||मेडिसिन्स सांस फ्रंटियर्स||स्था. १९७१||—||स्वयंसेवी संस्था|
|१९९७||जिमी कार्टर||ज. १९२४||संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका||संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका के ३९वें राष्ट्रपति|
|१९९८||मोहम्मद युनुस||ज. १९४०||बांग्लादेश||ग्राणीण बैंक के संस्थापक|
|१९९९||एम एस स्वामीनाथन||ज. १९२५||भारत||भारतीय कृषि वैज्ञानिक|
|२०००||मेरी रोबिंसन||ज. १९४४||आयरलैंड||7th आयरलैंड की ७वीं राष्ट्रपति|
|२००१||सदाको ओगाटा||ज. १९२७||जापान||भूतपूर्व यूनाइटेड नेशंस हाई कमिश्नर फार रिफ्यूजीज़|
|२००२||श्रीदत्त रामफल||—||ज. १९२८||राष्ट्रकुल के द्वितीय महासचिव|
|२००३||कोफी अन्नान||ज. १९३८||घाना||संयुक्त राष्ट्रसंघ के ७वें महासचिव|
|२००४||Maha Chakri Sirindhorn||ज. १९५५||थाईलैंड||थाईलैंड की राजकुमारी|
|२००५||हामिद करज़ई||ज. १९५७||अफगानिस्तान||अफगानिस्तान के प्रथम राष्ट्रपति|
|२००६||Wangari Maathai||1940 – 2011||कीनिया||Environmental and Political activist|
|२००७||बिल एंड मिलिंडा गेट्स फाउंडेशन||स्था. १९९४||संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका||परोपकारी संस्था|
|२००८||मोहम्मद अलबारदेई||ज. १९४२||मिस्र||अंतर्राष्ट्रीय परमाणु ऊर्जा अभिकरण के ४थे महासचिव|
|२००९||शेख हसीना||ज. १९४७||बांग्लादेश||बांग्लादेश की प्रधानमंत्री|
|२०१०||Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva||ज. १९४५||ब्राजील||ब्राजील के भूतपूर्व राष्ट्रपति|
|२०११||इला भट्ट||ज. १९३३||भारत||सेवा की संस्थापक|
* लाइबेरिया की राष्ट्रपति एलेन जॉनसन सरलीफ को शान्ति, निरस्त्रीकरण और विकास के लिए वर्ष 2012 के इंदिरा गाँधी पुरस्कार हेतु 19 नवम्बर
2012 को चयनित किया गया।