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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
CONTENTS
PAGES
PREAMBLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1
PART I
THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY
ARTICLES
1. Name and territory of the Union …………………………………………………………. 2
2. Admission or establishment of new States ………………………………………… 2
2A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
3. Formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names
of existing States …………………………………………………………………………………… 2-3
4. Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of
the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, incidental and
consequential matters …………………………………………………………………………… 3
PART II
CITIZENSHIP
5. Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution …………………….. 4
6. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India
from Pakistan ………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
7. Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan ……………………….. 5
8. Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing
outside India …………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
9. Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be
citizens ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
10. Continuance of the rights of citizenship …………………………………………….. 5
11. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law ……………………… 5
PART III
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS
General
12. Definition ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6
13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. …… 6
Right to Equality
14. Equality before law ………………………………………………………………………………. 6
15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex
or place of birth …………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment ……………… 7-8
17. Abolition of Untouchability …………………………………………………………………. 8
18. Abolition of titles ………………………………………………………………………………….. 8-9
Right to Freedom
19. Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc. …………. 9-10
20. Protection in respect of conviction for offences …………………………………. 1 0
21. Protection of life and personal liberty …………………………………………………. 1 0
21A. Right to education ………………………………………………………………………………… 11
22. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases …………………… 11-12
Right against Exploitation
23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour ………………… 13
24. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. …………………… 1 3
Right to Freedom of Religion
25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation
of religion ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 3
26. Freedom to manage religious affairs ………………………………………………….. 13-14
27. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular
religion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 4
28. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship
in certain educational institutions ………………………………………………………. 1 4
Cultural and Educational Rights
29. Protection of interests of minorities ……………………………………………………. 1 4
30. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational
institutions …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14-15
31. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 5
Saving of Certain Laws
31A. Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc. ………………… 15-17
31B. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations ……………………………………….. 1 7
31C. Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles ………………. 17-18
31D. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 8
Right to Constitutional Remedies
32. Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part ………………. 1 8
32A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 8
33. Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in
their application to Forces, etc. ……………………………………………………………. 1 9
34. Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in
force in any area ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1 9
35. Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part …………………….. 19-20
(ii) Contents
PART IV
DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
36. Definition ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 1
37. Application of the principles contained in this Part …………………………. 2 1
38. State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the
people …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 1
39. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State …………………… 21-22
39A. Equal justice and free legal aid ……………………………………………………………. 2 2
40. Organisation of village panchayats ……………………………………………………. 2 2
41. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain
cases ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 2
42. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity
relief ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 2
43. Living wage, etc., for workers ……………………………………………………………… 22-23
43A. Participation of workers in management of industries …………………….. 2 3
44. Uniform civil code for the citizens ………………………………………………………. 2 3
45. Provision for free and compulsory education for children ……………….. 2 3
46. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes,
Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections ……………………………………… 2 3
47. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of
living and to improve public health ……………………………………………………. 2 3
48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry …………………………. 2 3
48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of
forests and wild life ………………………………………………………………………………. 2 4
49. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national
importance …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 4
50. Separation of judiciary from executive ………………………………………………. 2 4
51. Promotion of international peace and security ………………………………….. 2 4
PART IVA
FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES
51A. Fundamental duties ……………………………………………………………………………… 2 5
PART V
THE UNION
CHAPTER I.—THE EXECUTIVE
The President and Vice-President
52. The President of India ………………………………………………………………………….. 2 6
53. Executive power of the Union ……………………………………………………………… 2 6
54. Election of President ……………………………………………………………………………… 2 6
55. Manner of election of President ……………………………………………………………. 27-28
56. Term of office of President …………………………………………………………………… 2 8
57. Eligibility for re-election ……………………………………………………………………….. 2 8
58. Qualifications for election as President ………………………………………………. 28-29
59. Conditions of President’s office …………………………………………………………… 2 9
Contents (iii)
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
60. Oath or affirmation by the President ………………………………………………….. 29-30
61. Procedure for impeachment of the President …………………………………….. 3 0
62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and
the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy ……………….. 30-31
63. The Vice-President of India ………………………………………………………………….. 3 1
64. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of
States ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 1
65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions
during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of
President ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 1
66. Election of Vice-President …………………………………………………………………….. 31-32
67. Term of office of Vice-President …………………………………………………………… 32-33
68. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President
and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy ……….. 3 3
69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President ………………………………………….. 3 3
70. Discharge of President’s functions in other contingencies ………………… 33
71. Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or
Vice-President ………………………………………………………………………………………… 33-34
72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit
or commute sentences in certain cases ……………………………………………….. 3 4
73. Extent of executive power of the Union ……………………………………………… 3 5
Council of Ministers
74. Council of Ministers to aid and advise President …………………………….. 3 5
75. Other provisions as to Ministers ………………………………………………………….. 3 6
The Attorney-General for India
76. Attorney-General for India …………………………………………………………………… 36-37
Conduct of Government Business
77. Conduct of business of the Government of India ……………………………… 3 7
78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to
the President, etc. ………………………………………………………………………………….. 37-38
CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENT
General
79. Constitution of Parliament ………………………………………………………………….. 3 8
80. Composition of the Council of States …………………………………………………. 3 8
81. Composition of the House of the People ……………………………………………. 39-40
82. Readjustment after each census ………………………………………………………….. 4 0
83. Duration of Houses of Parliament ……………………………………………………… 40-41
84. Qualification for membership of Parliament …………………………………….. 4 1
85. Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution ……………………….. 4 1
86. Right of President to address and send messages to Houses ………….. 41-42
87. Special address by the President …………………………………………………………. 4 2
88. Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses ………… 4 2
(iv) Contents
Officers of Parliament
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
89. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States ………. 4 2
90. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy
Chairman ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42-43
91. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties
of the office of, or to act as, Chairman ……………………………………………….. 4 3
92. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a
resolution for his removal from office is under consideration …………. 4 3
93. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People ………… 4 3
94. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker
and Deputy Speaker …………………………………………………………………………….. 4 4
95. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties
of the office of, or to act as, Speaker …………………………………………………… 4 4
96. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a
resolution for his removal from office is under consideration …………. 44-45
97. Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and
the Speaker and Deputy Speaker ………………………………………………………… 4 5
98. Secretariat of Parliament ……………………………………………………………………… 4 5
Conduct of Business
99. Oath or affirmation by members ………………………………………………………… 4 6
100. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies
and quorum …………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 6
Disqualifications of Members
101. Vacation of seats …………………………………………………………………………………… 46-48
102. Disqualifications for membership ……………………………………………………….. 4 8
103. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members ………………. 48-49
104. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation
under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified ……………. 4 9
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members
105. Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the
members and committees thereof ……………………………………………………….. 49-50
106. Salaries and allowances of members. …………………………………………………. 5 0
Legislative Procedure
107. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills ……………………………. 5 0
108. Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases ………………………………………. 50-52
109. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills ………………………………………. 52-53
110. Definition of “Money Bills” …………………………………………………………………. 53-54
111. Assent to Bills ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 4
Procedure in Financial Matters
112. Annual financial statement …………………………………………………………………. 54-56
113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates …………………………… 5 6
Contents (v)
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
114. Appropriation Bills ………………………………………………………………………………. 56-57
115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants ……………………………………… 5 7
116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants ………………… 57-58
117. Special provisions as to financial Bills ……………………………………………….. 58-59
Procedure Generally
118. Rules of procedure ………………………………………………………………………………… 5 9
119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial
business ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59-60
120. Language to be used in Parliament ……………………………………………………. 6 0
121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament ……………………………………………… 6 0
122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament ………………………. 6 0
CHAPTER III.—LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT
123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of
Parliament ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 60-61
CHAPTER IV.—THE UNION JUDICIARY
124. Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court …………………………… 61-63
125. Salaries, etc., of Judges ………………………………………………………………………… 6 3
126. Appointment of acting Chief Justice ………………………………………………….. 63-64
127. Appointment of ad hoc judges …………………………………………………………….. 6 4
128. Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court ………. 6 4
129. Supreme Court to be a court of record ………………………………………………. 6 5
130. Seat of Supreme Court …………………………………………………………………………. 6 5
131. Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court ……………………………………….. 6 5
131A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 5
132. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts
in certain cases ………………………………………………………………………………………. 65-66
133. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts
in regard to Civil matters …………………………………………………………………….. 6 6
134. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters ……. 6 7
134A. Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court ……………………………………… 67-68
135. Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to
be exercisable by the Supreme Court ………………………………………………….. 6 8
136. Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court ………………………………….. 6 8
137. Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court …………………….. 6 8
138. Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court …………………….. 6 8
139. Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs …… 6 8
139A. Transfer of certain cases ……………………………………………………………………….. 6 9
140. Ancillary powers of Supreme Court …………………………………………………… 6 9
141. Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts …………… 6 9
142. Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as
to discovery, etc. ……………………………………………………………………………………. 69-70
143. Power of President to consult Supreme Court ………………………………….. 7 0
144. Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court …… 7 0
144A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 0
(vi) Contents
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
145. Rules of Court, etc. ……………………………………………………………………………….. 71-72
146. Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court ……….. 72-73
147. Interpretation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 3
CHAPTER V.—COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA
148. Comptroller and Auditor-General of India ………………………………………… 73-74
149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General ………….. 74-75
150. Form of accounts of the Union and of the States ……………………………… 7 5
151. Audit reports …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 5
PART VI
THE STATES
CHAPTER I.—GENERAL
152. Definition ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 6
CHAPTER II.—THE EXECUTIVE
The Governor
153. Governors of States ………………………………………………………………………………. 7 6
154. Executive power of State ……………………………………………………………………… 7 6
155. Appointment of Governor ……………………………………………………………………. 7 6
156. Term of office of Governor …………………………………………………………………… 76-77
157. Qualifications for appointment as Governor …………………………………….. 7 7
158. Conditions of Governor’s office …………………………………………………………… 7 7
159. Oath or affirmation by the Governor ………………………………………………….. 77-78
160. Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies ………….. 7 8
161. Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit
or commute sentences in certain cases ……………………………………………….. 7 8
162. Extent of executive power of State ……………………………………………………… 7 8
Council of Ministers
163. Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor ……………………………… 78-79
164. Other provisions as to Ministers ………………………………………………………….. 79-80
The Advocate-General for the State
165. Advocate-General for the State ……………………………………………………………. 8 0
Conduct of Government Business
166. Conduct of business of the Government of a State …………………………… 81-81
167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to
Governor, etc. …………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 1
CHAPTER III.—THE STATE LEGISLATURE
General
168. Constitution of Legislatures in States ………………………………………………… 81-82
169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States …………………….. 8 2
Contents (vii)
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
170. Composition of the Legislative Assemblies ……………………………………….. 82-83
171. Composition of the Legislative Councils ……………………………………………. 83-85
172. Duration of State Legislatures …………………………………………………………….. 8 5
173. Qualification for membership of the State Legislature …………………….. 8 5
174. Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution ………. 8 6
175. Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or
Houses……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8 6
176. Special address by the Governor …………………………………………………………. 8 6
177. Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses …………… 86-87
Officers of the State Legislature
178. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly ………. 8 7
179. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker
and Deputy Speaker …………………………………………………………………………….. 8 7
180. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties
of the office of, or to act as, Speaker …………………………………………………… 87-88
181. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a
resolution for his removal from office is under consideration …………. 8 8
182. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council …… 8 8
183. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of
Chairman and Deputy Chairman ……………………………………………………….. 88-89
184. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties
of the office of, or to act as, Chairman ……………………………………………….. 8 9
185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a
resolution for his removal from office is under consideration …………. 8 9
186. Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the
Chairman and Deputy Chairman ……………………………………………………….. 9 0
187. Secretariat of State Legislature ……………………………………………………………. 9 0
Conduct of Business
188. Oath or affirmation by members ………………………………………………………… 9 0
189. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies
and quorum …………………………………………………………………………………………… 90-91
Disqualifications of Members
190. Vacation of seats …………………………………………………………………………………… 91-92
191. Disqualifications for membership ……………………………………………………….. 92-93
192. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members ………………. 9 3
193. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under
article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified …………………….. 93-94
Powers, Privileges and Immunities of State Legislatures and their Members
194. Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the
members and committees thereof ……………………………………………………….. 9 4
195. Salaries and allowances of members ………………………………………………….. 94-95
(viii) Contents
Legislative Procedure
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills ……………………………. 9 5
197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than
Money Bills …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 95-96
198. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills ………………………………………. 96-97
199. Definition of “Money Bills” …………………………………………………………………. 97-98
200. Assent to Bills ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 98-99
201. Bills reserved for consideration ……………………………………………………………. 9 9
Procedure in Financial Matters
202. Annual financial statement …………………………………………………………………. 99-100
203. Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates …………………………… 100-101
204. Appropriation Bills ………………………………………………………………………………. 101
205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants ……………………………………… 101-102
206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants ………………… 102-103
207. Special provisions as to financial Bills ……………………………………………….. 103
Procedure Generally
208. Rules of procedure ………………………………………………………………………………… 103-104
209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in
relation to financial business ……………………………………………………………….. 104
210. Language to be used in the Legislature ……………………………………………… 104-105
211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature ………………………………………. 105
212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature ………………… 105
CHAPTER IV.—LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR
213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of
Legislature. ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 105-107
CHAPTER V.—THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES
214. High Courts for States ………………………………………………………………………….. 107
215. High Courts to be courts of record ……………………………………………………… 107
216. Constitution of High Courts ………………………………………………………………… 107
217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court …….. 108-109
218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High
Courts …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 109
219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts …………………………………. 110
220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge …………………….. 110
221. Salaries, etc., of Judges ………………………………………………………………………… 110
222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another ………………………… 110-111
223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice ………………………………………………….. 111
224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges …………………………………. 111
224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts ………………. 111-112
225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts …………………………………………………… 112
226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs ……………………………………… 112-114
226A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 114
227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court …………… 114-115
Contents (ix)
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court ………………………………………………. 115
228A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts ………………….. 115-116
230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories ………….. 116
231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States …….. 116-117
CHAPTER VI.—SUBORDINATE COURTS
233. Appointment of district judges …………………………………………………………… 117
233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by,
certain district judges …………………………………………………………………………… 117-118
234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial
service …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 118
235. Control over subordinate courts ………………………………………………………….. 118
236. Interpretation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 118-119
237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or
classes of magistrates …………………………………………………………………………… 119
PART VII
THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE
238. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 120
PART VIII
THE UNION TERRITORIES
239. Administration of Union territories ……………………………………………………. 121
239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for
certain Union territories ……………………………………………………………………….. 121
239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi …………………………………………….. 121-124
239AB. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery …………………… 124-125
239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of
Legislature ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 125-126
240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union
territories ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 126-127
241. High Courts for Union territories ………………………………………………………… 127-128
242. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 128
PART IX
THE PANCHAYATS
243. Definitions ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
243A. Gram Sabha …………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
243B. Constitution of Panchayats …………………………………………………………………. 129-130
243C. Composition of Panchayats ………………………………………………………………… 130-131
243D. Reservation of seats ………………………………………………………………………………. 131-132
243E. Duration of Panchayats, etc. ……………………………………………………………….. 132-133
243F. Disqualifications for membership ……………………………………………………….. 133
243G. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats ……………………… 133-134
243H. Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats ……………… 134
(x) Contents
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
243-I. Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position ….. 134-135
243J. Audit of accounts of Pachayats ………………………………………………………….. 135
243K. Elections to the Panchayats …………………………………………………………………. 135-136
243L. Application to Union territories …………………………………………………………. 136
243M. Part not to apply to certain areas ……………………………………………………….. 136-137
243N. Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats ………………………………….. 137-138
243-O. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters ………………………………. 138
PART IXA
THE MUNICIPALITIES
243P. Definitions ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
243Q. Constitution of Municipalities …………………………………………………………….. 139-140
243R. Composition of Municipalities ……………………………………………………………. 140-141
243S. Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc. ……………… 141
243T. Reservation of seats ………………………………………………………………………………. 141-142
243U. Duration of Municipalities, etc. …………………………………………………………… 142-143
243V. Disqualifications for membership ……………………………………………………….. 143
243W. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc. …………. 143-144
243X. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities …………… 144
243Y. Finance Commission …………………………………………………………………………….. 144-145
243Z. Audit of accounts of Municipalities …………………………………………………… 145
243ZA. Elections to the Municipalities …………………………………………………………….. 145
243ZB. Application to Union territories ………………………………………………………….. 145-146
243ZC. Part not to apply to certain areas ……………………………………………………….. 146
243ZD. Committee for district planning ………………………………………………………….. 146-147
243ZE. Committee for Metropolitan planning ……………………………………………….. 147-148
243ZF. Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities ……………………………… 149
243ZG. Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters ……………………………… 149
PART X
THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS
244. Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas ……………………… 150
244A. Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in
Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or
both therefor …………………………………………………………………………………………… 150-151
PART XI
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES
CHAPTER I.—LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS
Distribution of Legislative Powers
245. Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States ……… 152
246. Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures
of States …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 152
Contents (xi)
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
247. Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain
additional courts …………………………………………………………………………………… 153
248. Residuary powers of legislation ………………………………………………………….. 153
249. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State
List in the national interest …………………………………………………………………… 153
250. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the
State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation ……………….. 154
251. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249
and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States …………………….. 154
252. Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and
adoption of such legislation by any other State ………………………………… 154-155
253. Legislation for giving effect to international agreements ………………….. 155
254. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made
by the Legislatures of States ………………………………………………………………… 155
255. Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be
regarded as matters of procedure only ………………………………………………. 156
CHAPTER II.—ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS
General
256. Obligation of States and the Union …………………………………………………….. 156
257. Control of the Union over States in certain cases ………………………………. 156-157
257A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
258. Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases ………… 157-158
258A. Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union ……………………… 158
259. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
260. Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India ……… 158
261. Public acts, records and judicial proceedings ……………………………………. 158-159
Disputes relating to Waters
262. Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State
rivers or river valleys …………………………………………………………………………….. 159
Co-ordination between States
263. Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council ……………………………… 159
PART XII
FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS
CHAPTER I.—FINANCE
General
264. Interpretation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 160
265. Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law ……………………………. 160
266. Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States ….. 160
(xii) Contents
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
267. Contingency Fund …………………………………………………………………………………. 161
Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States
268. Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the
States ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161-162
268A. Service tax levied by Union and collected and appropriated by the
Union and the States …………………………………………………………………………….. 162
269. Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States ……. 162-163
270. Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States ……. 163
271. Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union ……….. 164
272. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 164
273. Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products ………………….. 164
274. Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting
taxation in which States are interested ……………………………………………….. 164-165
275. Grants from the Union to certain States …………………………………………….. 165-166
276. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments ………………… 167
277. Savings …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 167
278. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 167
279. Calculation of “net proceeds”, etc. ……………………………………………………. 168
280. Finance Commission …………………………………………………………………………….. 168-169
281. Recommendations of the Finance Commission …………………………………. 169
Miscellaneous Financial Provisions
282. Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues …… 169
283. Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and
moneys credited to the public accounts …………………………………………….. 169-170
284. Custody of suitors’ deposits and other moneys received by public
servants and courts ………………………………………………………………………………. 170
285. Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation. ……………….. 170
286. Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods … 171
287. Exemption from taxes on electricity …………………………………………………… 171-172
288. Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity
in certain cases ………………………………………………………………………………………. 172
289. Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation …… 172-173
290. Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions ………………… 173
290A. Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds ………………………………….. 173-174
291. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 174
CHAPTER II.—BORROWING
292. Borrowing by the Government of India ………………………………………………. 174
293. Borrowing by States ……………………………………………………………………………… 174-175
CHAPTER III.—PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS,
LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS
294. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in
certain cases …………………………………………………………………………………………… 175
Contents (xiii)
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
295. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in
other cases ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 175-176
296. Property accruing by escheat or lapse or as bona vacantia ………………… 176
297. Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and
resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union ……….. 177
298. Power to carry on trade, etc. ………………………………………………………………… 177
299. Contracts ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 177-178
300. Suits and proceedings ………………………………………………………………………….. 178
CHAPTER IV.—RIGHT TO PROPERTY
300A. Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law …… 178
PART XIII
TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE
TERRITORY OF INDIA
301. Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse ……………………………………. 179
302. Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and
intercourse ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
303. Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States
with regard to trade and commerce ……………………………………………………. 179
304. Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States ……… 179-180
305. Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies ….. 180
306. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
307. Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles
301 to 304 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 180
PART XIV
SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES
CHAPTER I.—SERVICES
308. Interpretation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 181
309. Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union
or a State ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 181
310. Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State ………………….. 181-182
311. Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in
civil capacities under the Union or a State ………………………………………… 182-183
312. All-India services ………………………………………………………………………………….. 183-184
312A. Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of
officers of certain services …………………………………………………………………….. 184-185
313. Transitional provisions …………………………………………………………………………. 185
314. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
CHAPTER II.—PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS
315. Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States …………. 185-186
316. Appointment and term of office of members ……………………………………. 186-187
(xiv) Contents
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
317. Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service
Commission …………………………………………………………………………………………… 187-188
318. Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members
and staff of the Commission ……………………………………………………………….. 189
319. Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission
on ceasing to be such members ……………………………………………………………. 189-190
320. Functions of Public Service Commissions ………………………………………….. 190-192
321. Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions ……………… 192
322. Expenses of Public Service Commissions …………………………………………… 192
323. Reports of Public Service Commissions ……………………………………………… 192
PART XIVA
TRIBUNALS
323A. Administrative tribunals ……………………………………………………………………… 193-194
323B. Tribunals for other matters ………………………………………………………………….. 194-196
PART XV
ELECTIONS
324. Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested
in an Election Commission …………………………………………………………………… 197-198
325. No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a
special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex ………………….. 198
326. Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative
Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage ……………….. 198
327. Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections
to Legislatures ………………………………………………………………………………………. 199
328. Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to
elections to such Legislature ………………………………………………………………… 199
329. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters ………………………………. 199
329A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 199
PART XVI
SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES
330. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
in the House of the People ………………………………………………………………….. 200-201
331. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of
the People ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 201
332. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled
Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States ……………………………… 201-203
333. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative
Assemblies of the States ………………………………………………………………………. 203
334. Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after
sixty years ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 203
335. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services
and posts ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 204
336. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services ……… 204
Contents (xv)
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGES
337. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit
of Anglo-Indian Community ………………………………………………………………. 204-205
338. National Commission for Scheduled Castes ……………………………………… 205-207
338A. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes ………………………………………. 207-209
339. Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areas
and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes …………………………………………………… 209-210
340. Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of
backward classes ………………………………………………………………………………….. 210
341. Scheduled Castes ………………………………………………………………………………….. 210-211
342. Scheduled Tribes …………………………………………………………………………………… 211
PART XVII
OFFICIAL LANGUAGE
CHAPTER I.—LANGUAGE OF THE UNION
343. Official language of the Union …………………………………………………………….. 212
344. Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language ……. 212-214
CHAPTER II.—REGIONAL LANGUAGES
345. Official language or languages of a State ………………………………………….. 214
346. Official language for communication between one State and
another or between a State and the Union ………………………………………….. 214
347. Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the
population of a State ……………………………………………………………………………. 214
CHAPTER III.—LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC.
348. Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High
Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc. …………………………………………………………….. 214-215
349. Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to
language ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 216
CHAPTER IV.—SPECIAL DIRECTIVES
350. Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances …………….. 216
350A. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage ……………. 216
350B. Special Officer for linguistic minorities ………………………………………………. 216
351. Directive for development of the Hindi language ……………………………… 216-217
PART XVIII
EMERGENCY PROVISIONS
352. Proclamation of Emergency …………………………………………………………………. 218-220
353. Effect of Proclamation of Emergency …………………………………………………. 221
354. Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a
Proclamation of Emergency is in operation ……………………………………….. 221-222
355. Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression
and internal disturbance. ……………………………………………………………………… 222
356. Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States ………. 222-225
(xvi) Contents
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………………… PAGES
357. Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under
article 356 ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 225-226
358. Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies. ……………. 226-227
359. Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III
during emergencies ……………………………………………………………………………….. 227-228
359A. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 228
360. Provisions as to financial emergency ………………………………………………….. 228-230
PART XIX
MISCELLANEOUS
361. Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs ……………….. 231-232
361A. Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State
Legislatures ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 232
361B. Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post …… 232-233
362. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233
363. Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties,
agreements, etc. …………………………………………………………………………………….. 233
363A. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy
purses to be abolished ………………………………………………………………………….. 234
364. Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes ……………………… 234
365. Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given
by the Union …………………………………………………………………………………………… 235
366. Definitions ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 235-239
367. Interpretation …………………………………………………………………………………………. 239
PART XX
AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION
368. Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor ….. 240-241
PART XXI
TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS
369. Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain
matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List …….. 242
370. Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir …. 243-244
371. Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat …. 244-245
371A. Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland ………………….. 245-249
371B. Special provision with respect to the State of Assam ………………………. 250
371C. Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur ……………………. 250
371D. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh …….. 251-255
371E. Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh …………………. 255
371F. Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim …………………….. 255-259
371G. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram …………………… 259
371H. Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh ….. 259-260
Contents (xvii)
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………………… PAGES
371-I. Special provision with respect to the State of Goa …………………………… 260
372. Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation …………….. 260-262
372A. Power of the President to adapt laws ………………………………………………… 262
373. Power of President to make order in respect of persons under
preventive detention in certain cases …………………………………………………… 262-263
374. Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending
in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council ……………………… 263-264
375. Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the
provisions of the Constitution …………………………………………………………….. 264
376. Provisions as to Judges of High Courts ……………………………………………… 264-265
377. Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India ……………. 265
378. Provisions as to Public Service Commissions ……………………………………. 265
378A. Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative
Assembly ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 266
379-391. [Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 266
392. Power of the President to remove difficulties ……………………………………. 266
PART XXII
SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE
TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS
393. Short title ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 267
394. Commencement …………………………………………………………………………………….. 267
394A. Authoritative text in the Hindi language …………………………………………… 267-268
395. Repeals …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 268
SCHEDULES
FIRST SCHEDULE
I. The States ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 269-274
II. The Union territories ……………………………………………………………………………… 274-275
SECOND SCHEDULE
Part A—Provisions as to the President and the Governors of States ……………… 276
Part B—[Repealed.] ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 276
Part C—Provisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House
of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the
Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the
Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman
of the Legislative Council of a State …………………………………………………… 277
Part D—Provisions as to the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High
Courts. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 277-280
Part E—Provisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India …….. 281
THIRD SCHEDULE— Forms of Oaths or Affirmations……………………………………. 282-284
(xviii) Contents
ARTICLES …………………………………………………………………………………………………… PAGES
FOURTH SCHEDULE—Allocation of seats in the Council of States ………………. 285-286
FIFTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to the Administration and Control of
Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes ………………………… 287
Part A—General …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 287
Part B—Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled
Tribes …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 287-289
Part C— Scheduled Areas ………………………………………………………………………………… 289-290
Part D—Amendment of the Schedule ……………………………………………………………… 290
SIXTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the
States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram …………. 291-314
SEVENTH SCHEDULE—
List I —Union List ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 315-321
List II—State List ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 321-326
List III—Concurrent List ……………………………………………………………………………….. 326-329
EIGHTH SCHEDULE—Languages ………………………………………………………………………. 330
NINTH SCHEDULE—Validation of certain Acts and Regulations …………………… 331-348
TENTH SCHEDULE—Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection ……… 349-353
ELEVENTH SCHEDULE—Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats ….. 354-355
TWELFTH SCHEDULE—Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities,
etc. ……………………………………………………………………………… 356
APPENDIX
APPENDIX I—The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order,
1954 …………………………………………………………………………………………… 357-374
APPENDIX II—Re-statement, with reference to the present text of the
Constitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject to
which the Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and
Kashmir …………………………………………………………………………………….. 375-396
INDEX ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 397-443
Contents (xix)